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Rates of reaction.

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Introduction

Chemistry Planning Procedure In my investigation, I will be trying to find out what affects the rate in which magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid. I will be putting a small piece of the metal magnesium into a test tube of hydrochloric acid. However, each time I do so, the concentration of the acid will be different. To be safe in this experiment I will be using safety goggles at all times, my hair will be tied back and test tubes will all be put in a test tube rack so that there are no accidents. The equation for my experiment is: Magnesium + hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + hydrogen Variables In this experiment, factors of rate of reaction will be the only things changed i.e. concentration, temperature, surface area & catalysts, but I personally will be sticking to concentration. Surface area: Surface area is the measurement of how much surface is exposed. Therefore, for the same mass of magnesium, a small piece has a larger surface area than a big piece. You increase the surface area each time you cut something smaller. As the surface area increased, the rate of reaction increases too because more atoms are exposed and ready to react. Temperature: When two chemicals react, their molecules have to collide with each other with sufficient energy for the reaction to take place. ...read more.

Middle

I will be using 15cm of hydrochloric acid, 2cm of magnesium and a test tube holder to hold the test tubes for safety. Method To make my investigation a fair test I will be using the same amount of hydrochloric acid and magnesium. Measure 20cm of hydrochloric acid using the burette for accuracy and repeat this in five different test tubes. However, every test tube has a different concentration. This is what the concentrations are going to be: 2.5,m 2.0, 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5. Then put the test tubes in the test tube holder. Then get a stop clock and put 2cm of magnesium in one of the test tubes. Use the stop clock to time how long it takes for the magnesium to react with the hydrochloric acid and disappear. Repeat this with all of the other test tubes and repeat all of the experiment three times to be as accurate as possible. Obtaining evidence Results MULLS 1ST TIME 2ND TIME 3RD TIME AVERAGE 2.5 7 seconds 11 seconds 8 seconds 9 seconds 2.0 10seconds 31 seconds 23 seconds 21 seconds 1.5 1.0 21 seconds 74 seconds 22 seconds 70 seconds 22 seconds 63 seconds 22 seconds 69 seconds 0.5 438 seconds 457 seconds 454 seconds 456 seconds Analysis What has been found out: In this experiment I have found out that the higher the concentration (strength of acid) ...read more.

Conclusion

I also needed to undertake a more suitable method. I needed to base this experiment on one day not over a longer period of time because in this way my method would be more constant and if the experiment is done over two or three days things might be done differently to the day before which would differ my results. I do not think I have sufficient evidence to support a firm conclusion. I need to repeat the experiment more times though this time try and think more about how certain things i.e. temperature, can effect my experiment. To improve my experiment even more I need to research into the matter more deeply by using more accurate equipment and sticking to one kind of temperature. I need to make my experiment as accurate & as fair as can be by keeping my procedure constant, accurate & reliable. Also using a wider length of time and a wider range of acids will ensure that what I conclude can be backed up strongly with good quality results. This means I can extend my enquiry by having a lot more results to talk about. To keep the temperature constant I could put the equipment in a bath at a certain temperature, which means that it will be a fair test. This will provide good solid results enabling me to right out a more detailed conclusion backing up my results. ...read more.

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