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Rates of reaction

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Introduction

Rates of reaction The rate of a reaction is the speed of the reaction. It is not "how much" of a product is made, but instead "how quickly" a reaction takes place. If we consider a reaction e.g. zinc + hydrochloric acid -> zinc chloride + hydrogen Then there are two possible ways of measuring the rate: 1) Measure how quickly one of the products (e.g. the hydrogen) is formed. 2) Measure how quickly one of the reactants (e.g. the zinc) disappears. In this investigation I hope to look at the factors, which affect the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid. The factors I intend to vary are - * The temperature * The concentration of hydrochloric acid Magnesium + hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + hydrogen Mg + 2HCL MgCL2 +H2 Fair test We have to make sure that we use the similar size, amount and the same mass of magnesium, this is because we want to keep the ribbon the same all the way through out the experiment so that it will be a fair test and the results will be related to each other, otherwise the results will be completely different to what we expect it to be, and it will ruin the experiment. ...read more.

Middle

The reaction time will be much faster with the strongest acid and the hydrogen will produced at a greater rate. COLLISION THEORY: MORE COLLISIONS INCREASE THE RATE OF REACTION Temperature By increasing the temperature the amount of energy produced will increase, due to the amount of energy the particles will have, this will cause them to collide harder and faster increasing the number of successful collisions e.g. increasing temperature increases particle movement. Concentration The concentration will affect the rate of reaction if the concentration is increased the number of reactants increase i.e. there are more hydrogen and chlorine molecules. This increase in concentration will also increase reactivity. The experiment was carried out using the equipment and method as above and the following results were recorded:- Table of results 0.5 molar 1 molar 1.5 molar 2 molar 2.5 molar time 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 19.5 24.5 32 10 2 15 34 36 45.5 20 3 22 42 42 51.25 30 4 27.5 47 50.5 52.25 40 5 32.5 50.75 52 52.5 50 6 34 53.25 53.5 53.5 60 7 35.5 53.25 54.5 53.75 70 8 37.25 53.25 55.25 53.75 80 9.25 38 53.25 55.25 53.75 90 10.5 40 53.25 55.25 ...read more.

Conclusion

A graph for the results when changing the concentration of acid The line graph clearly shows reactivity is directly linked to concentration. Conclusion After carrying out the experiment and investigating how concentration and temperature affects the rate of reaction. I've found out that the less concentrated the acid you use the slower the rate of reaction. The more concentrated the acid the faster the rate of reaction. Similarly as temperature is increased reactivity increases. The results show that the volume of hydrogen produced is greatest when the concentration of the acid increased. The experiment has produced slightly irregular results in that 2.0 molar produced a greater a volume of hydrogen than 2.5 molar. This may attributed to human error or inaccuracies in the equipment as the difference in the gas is very small. EVALUATION: The difficulties I encountered were - * Ensuring the magnesium was exactly the same size. * Measuring the volume of hydrogen produced every 10 seconds proved difficult due to the apparatus in use i.e. the gas syringe's markings. * Human error in that the results could not be accurately recorded exactly every 10 seconds. * The seals on the apparatus may not have been air tight and a small amount of hydrogen may have escaped. David mccreight ...read more.

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