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Rates of Reaction

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THE RATES OF REACTION AIM Since my project is to investigate the rates of reaction, my aim is to test how one factor will affect the rate of reaction. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE The rate of reaction tells us how quickly a reaction takes place. The only real way to measure the rate of reaction is by implementing experiments. Usually the rate of reaction will vary if one factor variable has less or more volume. These are usually the variables that can affect the rate of reaction: - * Catalyst * Concentration on the reactants * Surface Area * Temperature These factors are variables, which if changed; it will affect the rate of the reaction. Catalyst A catalyst is a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction, leaving the catalyst unchanged after the reaction has taken place. Catalyst provides an alternative pathway for the reaction e.g. a catalyst that has much lower activation energy. More collisions will therefore have enough energy for this new pathway. Catalysts are important in many industrial processes. They increase the rate of production. Example of a catalyst is Iron which is used in the Haber process to process ammonia. Concentration of the reactants The concentration of the reactants will also affect the rate of reaction. For example, if we increased the concentration of a reactant in a reaction, it would mean that the number of collisions between particles will be higher. Higher concentration of molecules means there will be more collisions taking place there fore increasing the rate of reaction. ...read more.


I used this to heat the test tube properly, as it is safer to use than a Bunsen burner. It is also to an advantage because it keeps the water the same temperature. It is also capable of rising the water temperature to as much as 90�C. * Test tube This was required to contain the acid and also, it was feasible enough to use as we could fit the end of the barometer into the tube. * Barometer We used this piece of apparatus to collect the gas and keep a track of how much gas is being collected. * Measuring Cylinder This was needed to measure the volume of acid, we first collected the acid up to 10ml in the measuring cylinder and until we obtained the required amount we poured it into the test tube. * Clamp stand This was needed to hold the barometer. * Stopwatch We used this piece of apparatus to record how long it took from the time the magnesium entered the test tube containing the 10ml of acid until the barometer contained exactly 50ml of gas given off from the reaction. * Weighing scale We used a weighing scale to weigh the amount of magnesium. It was a small scale and measured quite accurately. The apparatus is illustrated on the next page. METHOD & FAIR TEST Basically my method was described in the planning area. Most of the equipment for my experiment will be obtained from the school and the prep room. ...read more.


These were at 20�C where the time taken was 6.65 seconds and at 50�C where the time taken was 6.32 seconds. So clearly, the time taken at 40�C should be somewhere between 6.65 and 6.32 seconds. I think we have this irregular result because I found there was a problem with one of the gas syringes. I remember that one of them had a bit of moisture in the syringe, which made the plunger to move in and out of the syringe in flexibility. This could be why we have one irregular result. One of the other reasons could be that the tubing was incorrectly attached to the test tube, which could have lead to the gas being exposed into the air and not through the tube. I believe our experiment went well enough, but if it were possible I would make a few changes. For example: - * I would carry out all the five experiments in one day, as this could have affected my results. The five experiments that we did were done at different timings, which know if the more AC's could have been switched on at certain days. What if during one experiment 3 AC's were on but during another experiment only 1 AC was on. This could have affected the temperature. * I would make the volume lower or lower the mass of magnesium used. This is because I would like to have results that would be on a longer scale of time in seconds. This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database ?? ?? ?? ?? Jesal Raipancholia Year 11 CHEMISTRY THE RATES OF REACTION ...read more.

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