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Rates of Reaction

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Introduction

Aim: How the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with magnesium. Preliminary Work: We tested out 8 different metals; we put all the 8 metals in test tubes containing hydrochloric acid and waited to see which metal was the fastest to react, to choose our desired metal. Here are the 8 metals: > Copper > Lead > Tin > Magnesium > Aluminium > Zinc > Iron > Nickel We found that all the metals produced hydrogen and found that magnesium produced hydrogen the quickest with hydrochloric acid so therefore we chose magnesium because it was the most reactive with hydrochloric acid, This is important because magnesium reacts well with hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric Acid + Magnesium Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Hydrochloric Acid + Magnesium Salt + Hydrogen Theory Concentration: A reaction can be made to go faster or slower by changing the concentration of a reactant, the more the concentration, the faster the reaction will occur. Increasing the concentration of the reactants will increase the frequency of collisions between the two reactants and decreasing the concentration will decrease collision between the reactants. Temperature: Changing the temperature can affect the reaction; the reaction goes faster when the temperature is raised because when two chemicals react, their molecules have to collide with each other with sufficient energy for the reaction to take place. ...read more.

Middle

Prediction: I predict that magnesium will react the quickest in 1.0m concentration of hydrochloric acid; therefore magnesium will react the slowest in 0.2m concentration of hydrochloric acid. This means that the stronger the concentration the quicker the magnesium will react, the weaker the concentration the slower the magnesium will react. Results Molarity (M) 1st Reading of reaction (mins) 2nd Reading of reaction (mins) Average (mins) 0.2 23.4 25.6 24.5 0.4 18.2 19.8 19 0.6 12.1 13.4 12.9 0.8 5.3 5.9 5.6 1.0 1.7 2.1 1.9 From my results it clearly shows that my prediction was correct. 0.2M being the slowest and 1.0M being the quickest. Analyses From my results I can see that my prediction was correct. The stronger the concentration/morality of acid the quicker the reaction will occur. I predicted that if the concentration of reactants is stronger than the rate of reaction will occur more quickly. This is because it increases the amount of particles; the molecules of the other reactant can collide with. According to my evidence there is a strong line of correlation, the higher the molarity of acid the faster the rate of reaction. This is why the line of best fit goes into a negative correlation. 1.0m of acid reacted the fastest of times 1.7 (1st Reading), 2.1 (2nd Reading) ...read more.

Conclusion

I will use the more concentration (about 20ml) of hydrochloric acid but the same molarity of 0.2M-1.0M Another way to further my investigation is to change the metal being used and also change the acid. I will change the acid to sulphuric acid. For the metals I would use 8 different metals which are: > Copper > Lead > Tin > Magnesium > Aluminium > Zinc > Iron > Nickel From the 8 metals I will see which one reacts the fastest and use that metal, I predict magnesium will react the quickest. (Preliminary work). From there I will carry out nearly the same experiment that I conducted with hydrochloric acid and magnesium but instead I will use more concentration of acid, use a catalyst and a gas syringe. I will do the experiment two times to get accurate results. Method > Get the magnesium ribbon (cm) > Get the test tubes (10) > Put the magnesium ribbon in the test-tube, A piece of magnesium ribbon in each test-tube > Measure 20cm of sulphuric acid with the measuring cylinder > Add the 20cm of sulphuric acid to the test-tube 1 with 0.2 of hydrochloric acid > Time the reaction, until the magnesium dissolves > Repeat the stages and this time with acid: > 0.4M > 0.6M > 0.8M > 1.0M > Repeat stage 4 and 5 to get two sets of results This is the, method I will be using to conduct my further investigations. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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