• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9

Rates of Reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Reaction Rate: Reaction rate is simply the rate (usually measured in units/time) that two or more reactants take to complete a chemical reaction. A Brief Introduction to Rates of Reaction Reaction rate can be measured in many different, but effective and accurate ways. Some of these can include measuring: change in heat over time (?H/t), amount of gas produced over time over time (?V/t), the change in concentration over time (?Ph/t) and even change in colour over time (?colour/t). Another way of measuring reaction rate is by timing how long it takes for a reactant to be consumed (disappear), or by timing how long it takes for a new substance to be created (appear). A formula has been derived that is able to calculate the rate of a chemical reaction. This is called the "Rate Equation". The diagram to the right shows the different components that form the rate equation. There are 3 main ideas/aspects that can be noticed in the given reaction equation. The values in the brackets refer to the concentrations of the different reactants. Only the values in the brackets are related to concentration. The rate constant (k) is not really a constant at all. It varies when aspects of the reaction are changed such as the temperature, changing of catalysts or varying surface area, as these factors prevent different reactions from correctly being able to be compared. Therefore, the constant only applies when the only variable in the equation is the concentration. The powers that apply to the concentration values are the orders of reactions. These figures can only be positive, can be represented by a fraction eg. Decimal value, and determine the overall order of reaction for the equation. ...read more.

Middle

This involved sticking a burning splint over the end of a test tube with the reaction taking place. If a popping sound is heard, it means that the gas being produced is hydrogen. To measure the reaction rate in this experiment, a tub of water was set up and a measuring cylinder was filled to the top with water, and turned upside-down and placed into the tub of water, so that the volume of gas produced in the reaction could be measured in the cylinder. The reactants were placed into a sealed bottle that had only one exit, a tube that extended out the top. This tube was hooked under the cylinder so that the gas would run through the tube and go into the cylinder to be measured. Three different concentrations were made which included: Volume of 3M Sulphuric Acid Volume of Distilled Water Concentration Produced 30mL 0mL 3M 20mL 10mL 2M 10mL 20mL 1M This reaction was slow, so the reaction rate was recorded by measuring the amount of gas produced per minute, rather than the time taken for the reaction to complete, as that could have taken hours or even days. Another experiment was performed using the same reactants, but the surface area of the zinc was varied instead. Both zinc powder and zinc chips were used in the reaction. Once again, the volume of gas per minute was recorded. The 3M concentration of acid was used, as it would produce better, faster results than any other. Prediction - Once again, the higher the concentration of SO4, the quicker the time of reaction will be, and the higher the rate of reaction. The higher the surface area, the slower the time will be and the lower the rate of reaction will be. ...read more.

Conclusion

This means that the reaction rate is directly proportional to the concentration of the iodide, and the time for reaction to complete is inversly proportional to the concentration of the iodide. Experiment 4. - If the hydorgen peroxide had been as available to us as anyone else, three catalyst experiments would have been performed. One involving liver (blood), one involving Mangenise Dioxide (MnO2) and one with Iron Sulfate (FeSO4). Without actually performing the experiments, it is impossible to begin to predict how the time of reaction would have been effected by the different catalysts. However, upon examination of other people's experiments, it became evident that all of the catalysts used in each of the experiments sped up the reaction greatly, some to the point where it became impossible to even measure the volume of gas produced. Conclusion Overall, I feel that, apart from the hydrogen peroxide prac, the entire investigation was a success. Valid information was acquired and was successfully integrated into the analysis of the experiments. The subject of reaction rate was researched and experimented on as well as related topics such as the reaction equation, order of reaction, collision theory and activation energy. If I were to do this experiment again, these are just some of the things I would change: - Make sure I use the right equipment - Make sure the equipment is clean - Do the experiments multiple times in order to gain more results so that there is less chance of using incorrect information - Manage my time more wisely so that I could have time to analyse each experiment and detect faults and perhaps retry experiments - Investigate every possible way of changing the experiment(s) to involve all factors contributing to reaction rate ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Rates of Reaction - The Iodine Clock

    are dealing with concentrated acids and Sodium Thiosulphate which is a strong oxidant. It is also possible for iodine to stain skin. Apparatus Beakers (100ml) Biurets (50ml) Conical Flasks (250ml) Measuring Cylinders (10ml, 200ml) Stopwatch Syringe (5ml) Wash bottles White tile Method and Modification Notes Chemicals Required; All the standard solutions should be made readily available in the lab.

  2. The Iodine Clock Investigation

    To choose suitable concentrations of reactants so that the reactions proceed neither too quickly, nor too slow. In order to gain the required information, trial experiments must be conducted. Experiment 1 Aim: In this initial trial experiment, the aim is firstly, to become acquainted with the method and procedure

  1. How does the activation enthalpy and the rate of the iodine-clock reaction vary with ...

    is working as fast as it can. The Reaction Mechanism. The rate of reaction calculated using the above reaction refers to the rate of one particular step of a reaction. If the reaction only involves one step, the of course that is equal to the actual rate of reaction.

  2. A-Level Investigation - Rates of Reaction – The Iodine Clock

    that will make the solution up to 200ml (including 1ml of 1% starch solution). The dependant variable will obviously be the time taken for the reaction to reach end point (signified by the solution color change clear to deep blue).

  1. To determine the rate law for a chemical reaction among hydrogen peroxide, iodide and ...

    The time was recorded for the reaction in Table 3. The solution was discarded and the conical flask was rinsed. Results Table 1: Standardization of H2O2 solution. Date Trial 1 Trial 2 Burette final reading/ cm3 35.00 34.30 Burette initial reading/ cm3 0.45 0.00 Volume of 0.05M Na2S2O3(aq)

  2. The Iodine Clock

    it on one day instead of over a couple of days if there was enough time, and taken more care when reading the results. The results could not be completely accurate because we could only tell when the solution started to turn a different colour by our own eyesight; next

  1. Rates of Reaction experiments

    However this would be limited by the size of the magnesium. Catalyst- Adding a catalyst to the solution sparks in itself a reaction which would give the particles in the solution more energy and increase their movement rate therefore increasing the chance of collisions between the acid and the magnesium particles.

  2. Investigating making Epsom salts by varying the rates of reaction.

    This is not recommended for use in schools. Suphuric acid is also dangerous with water, hydrochloric acid, chlorides, hydrogen chloride, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and many other metals as dangerous reaction can take place. If swallowed: you should wash out mouth and drink glasses of water. Do not induce vomit and then seek medical help.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work