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Rates of reaction.

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Introduction

Rates of reaction GCSE COURSEWORK CHEMISTRY 2004 AIM In the experiment we use hydrochloric acid which reacts with the magnesium to form magnesium chloride. The hydrogen ions give hydrochloric acid its acidic properties, so that all solutions of hydrogen chloride and water have a sour taste; corrode active metals, forming metal chlorides and hydrogen; turn litmus red; neutralise alkalis; and react with salts of weak acids, forming chlorides and the weak acids. Magnesium, symbol Mg, silvery white metallic element that is relatively unreactive. In group 2 of the periodic table, magnesium is one of the alkaline earth metals. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast the reaction takes place. It is important to remember that a rapid reaction is completed in a short period of time. An example of a fast reaction is an explosion, and an example of a slow reaction is rusting. PLAN * Equations: Mg+2HCl MgCl +H � � Mg+2H Mg+H � The magnesium will react with hydrochloric acid, because it is higher in the reactivity series that hydrogen. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore I must: * Use the same volume of hydrochloric acid throughout (4cm�) * Use the same mass of magnesium for each test * Use the same lengths of magnesium ribbon for each test * Always start the timer as soon as the acid is poured onto the magnesium * The only one variable will be the concentration levels of the hydrochloric acid, ranging from 0.5m-3.0m. * Safety: I need to take precautions when carrying out this experiment, in order to conduct this experiment safely I must: * Wear safety goggles as the acid is corrosive and could damage my eyes * Take great care when using glass wear as it could shatter and cut someone due to the sharpness of glass when it breaks. * Take great care when dealing with the acid * Use a paper towel just in case some acid spills, then it would go onto the towel * Make sure that the whole working are is risk assessed, with no obstructions * Tie back long hair * Range of results and reliability: For this investigation I will take results for the concentration of Hydrochloric acid and the time it takes to react with the magnesium ribbon. ...read more.

Conclusion

The results were reliable and quite accurate and there were no anomalous results. The only slightly off point on the graphs was for 1.0M. This may have been because the heat produced from the reaction sped it up more in relation to the other concentrations. The procedure was suitable for the results we wanted to obtain because it was quick, fair and quite accurate. Although, the results were excellent, they were not perfect. Some of the reasons for this may be: * When the reaction takes place, bubbles of H2 are given off, which might stay on the magnesium, therefore reducing the surface area of the magnesium so the acid cannot react properly so this affects the results. * There may have been some slight human error when stopping the stopwatch. The results helped to give a firm and reliable conclusion and it would have been hard to improve them. However, to improve the experiment, we could use a computer to time the reaction. We could also carry out the experiment with HCl of higher concentrations than 3.0M and repeat the various concentrations still further, although the pattern of results should not be very different to my own results. 1 Ahmed Alaskary ...read more.

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