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Rates Of Reaction

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Introduction

Aime� Allam Chemistry Coursework: Rates Of Reaction Planning Section: Background knowledge: For a reaction to occur, a collision with enough energy must happen between two particles. Only if the collision has enough energy, will a reaction take place. There more successful collisions there are, the faster the reaction and the higher the rate of reaction. There are several ways of increasing the rate of a reaction. One is by increasing the temperature. When hot, particles have more energy and move around more quickly. Inevitably there are more collisions and the reaction is faster. Another is by increasing the concentration of a substance. This means that there are more particles of that substance available to collide with the other substance. This results in more collisions and a faster reaction. When there is a larger surface area of a substance that is being reacted with another, the reaction is faster. This is because there are more particles on the surface that can be collided with. This means that there are more reactions and the rate is higher. Variables: -The temperature of the surroundings- this is because when the substances are hotter, their particles move around a lot quicker causing more high-energy collisions to occur, making the rate of reaction higher. I will perform all of my tests at room temperature. -The amount of Calcium Carbonate- the more calcium carbonate there is, the greater the number of particles the acid must react with, therefore slowing the reaction down. ...read more.

Middle

-I will then take an acid, in a conical flask, and add the marble chips to it -I will place the bung in place at the same time. -I will start the timer simultaneously -I will then draw a line using the marker pen showing where the plunger in the syringe is up to at certain intervals, depending on the strength of the acid. -I will then record the readings clearly in a table -I will repeat this for every acid mixture I have made. Safety precautions: -I will wear goggles to protect my eyes -I will wear a lab coat to protect my clothes and body. -I will not use acids that will severely harm anything. Fair test: -I will aim to get the marble chips the same size so that the surface area will be the same and not interfere with my results. -I will use the same amount of solution for each test so that it won't affect my results. -I will perform all of my tests at room temperature so that it won't alter my results. -I will use the same weight of calcium carbonate. Prediction: I predict that as the concentration increases, so will the rate of reaction. I think that this will happen because when a solution is more concentrated, there are more particles of the acid in it, which means that there will be more particles to collide with the calcium carbonate molecules. ...read more.

Conclusion

I would use a shelf in my conical flask. This would allow me to put the marble chips into the acid but be ready to measure the carbon dioxide instantly. The accuracy of my results: My results seem altogether quite accurate. There were no anomalous results, however a few points strayed a little from the line of best fit. I think that the reason a few of my results were a little out, is that all the tests were conducted in an environment in which the temperature was unmonitored. The tests were performed at room temperature on two separate days. This means that my test conditions may well have been hotter on one day than the other or there may have been a draft, and as temperature is a variable in this investigation, it might have affected my results. Another reason may have been due to the delay in between my putting the marble chips into the acid and fixing the bung in place. This delay will have allowed some carbon dioxide to escape, but as this delay was roughly the same in each test and we are looking at rate rather than actual volumes of carbon dioxide, I doubt it affected my results significantly. Extending this investigation: To test my prediction further I can do a number of things: 1) I can test many more concentrations. 2) I can test it using a different acid. 3) I can use a different solid. 4) I can test it with different amounts of solid. ...read more.

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