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rates of reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

In this GCSE science coursework "Rates of Reaction" I will investigate the affect of concentrations of HCl on Magnesium. I will be measuring the amount of H2 produced and the time taken for Mg to disappear at different concentrations of HCl. I predict that increase in concentration of HCl will lead to a faster reaction, the higher the concentration of HCl the faster the reaction. I expect this because increasing the concentration means increasing the number of HCl molecules which will lead to more collisions between Mg and HCl molecules and so a faster reaction. Rate of reaction means the speed or how fast a chemical change occurs. Reactants are substances that are required for a reaction to take place. In my investigation the reactants are Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid. Mg is a group 2 alkali earth metal. Hydrochloric acid contains elements Hydrogen and Chlorine. Products are the new substance formed in a chemical reaction. In this case Magnesium reacts with Hydrochloric acid to from Magnesium chloride and Hydrogen gas. The bonds between HCl breaks, Chlorine bonds with Magnesium to form Magnesium chloride and Hydrogen gas is given off. Word equation for the reaction is Magnesium + Hydrogen chloride Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen Balanced symble equation with state symbols Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Collision theory Collision theory explains how chemical reactions take place and why rates of reaction alter. For a reaction to occur the reactant particles must collide. Only a certain fraction of the total collisions cause chemical change, these are called 'successful collisions' the successful collisions have sufficient energy called the 'activation energy' at the moment of impact to break the existing bonds and form new bonds resulting in the products of the reaction. Increasing the concentration and the temperature bring about more successful collisions causing an increase in the rate of reaction. The particles collide with enough kinetic energy to break bonds and so reaction takes place. ...read more.

Middle

63 63 60 62 30 68 70 66 68 35 74 75 72 73.7 40 78 77 76 77 45 81 81 79 80.3 50 83 83 82 82.7 55 83 84 83 83.3 60 84 84 84 84 65 84 84 84.5 84.2 70 End time 65 65 65 Average time 65 Concentration of Hydrochloric acid 1.75 M The average mass of Mg 0.085g The volume of Hydrochloric acid 10cm3 The length of Magnesium 5cm Intervals (secs) Volume of hydrogen produced Repeat 1 Repeat 2 Repeat 3 Average 0 0 0 0 0 5 17 19 17 17.7 10 29 31 31 30.3 15 40 42 41 41 20 47 46 46 46.3 25 55 53 53 53.7 30 60 60 61 60.3 35 66 65 66 65.7 40 70 71 71 70.7 45 73 75 74 74 50 75 76 76 75.7 55 78 78 78 78 60 80 81 80 80.3 65 82 82 82 82 70 83 83 83 83 75 84 84 84 84 80 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 90 86 86 85 85.7 95 86 86 86 86 100 86 86 86 86 105 86 - 86 86 110 End time 105 100 105 Average time 103.3 Concentration of Hydrochloric acid 1.50 M The average mass of Mg 0.085g The volume of Hydrochloric acid 10cm3 The length of Magnesium 5cm Intervals (secs) Volume of hydrogen produced Repeat 1 Repeat 2 Repeat 3 Average 0 0 0 0 0 10 29 23 28 28.5 20 44 40 42 43 30 58 51 59 58.5 40 68 60 67 67.5 50 72 66 73 72.5 60 78 71 78 78 70 80 75 80 80 80 82 77 81 81.5 90 83 80 82 82.5 100 83 83 83 83 110 83 83 83 83 120 84 84 83 83 130 84 84 84 84 140 84 84 84 84 150 84 84 84 160 End time 150 148 150 Average time 149.5 Concentration of ...read more.

Conclusion

I could study the rate of reaction of different metals and find the relation ship between the group 2 metals reactivity. The group 2 metals become more reactive descending the group. This is because the outer most electrons that is lost in a reaction is further away from the nucleus going the group and so they are easier to remove because there is less attraction between the nucleus in the outer most electron the reaction will become more violent so I have to be careful. The reactions becomes more exothermic going down the group because the ionisation energy (the energy needed to remove the electrons) decrease so more energy is released in breaking the bonds than used in making new bonds. X +2HCl XCl2 + H2 The apparatus I will use for this experiment is the same I have used before, except that will use a pipette and gas syringe instead of a measuring cylinder. Some of group 2 metals are very reactive so I have to be careful and I think I must use a very small amount of the metal. I will use a range of acid concentrations between 0.5M to 2.00M or 1.75M because some of the metal will be very reaction. I will use 10cm3 of HCl so it is excess and 0.5g of the metals of length 3cm. I will use very short time interval for collecting the gas, Magnesium is at the top of group so the other metals will be more reactive. The method for this experiment will be the same as the one in my experiment except that I will use pipette and gas syringe instead go measuring cylinder. The diagram shows how to set the apparatus. Time intervals will as following Acid concentration (M) Time intervals (secs) 0.5 20 0.75 15 1.00 10 1.25 10 1.50 5 1.75 4 2.00 3 After experiment I will work out the reactivity of the metals and hopefully according to the prediction the graph should look like this. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 Science coursework: Rates of reaction Sharifullah Yaquby 10C ...read more.

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