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# Rates of Reaction.

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Introduction

GCSE Science Coursework Rates of Reaction Introduction Temperature, catalyst, surface area and concentration affect the rates of reaction. Catalyst can't be changed in variables so I will therefore use the concentration variables to support my conclusion because I am familiar with the theory of concentration on the affects of rates of reaction. I am going to measure the gas by using the syringe method we are going to make it fair by having exactly 1g calcium carbonate and 30ml of hydrochloric acid. Equipment * 1g Calcium carbonate * 30ml of hydrochloric acid at concentrations of 0.75m, 1m, 1.25m, 1.5m, and 1.75m. * Conical flask * Syringe * Delivery tube * Stopwatch * Scales * Measuring cylinder Method 1. Add 30ml of 0.75m concentrated Hydrochloric acid to a conical flask 2. Add 1g of marble chips to hydrochloric acid in the conical flask 3. Put on the cork attached to the delivery tube and the syringe on the conical flask. 4. Start the stopwatch 5. Measure the gas produced in the syringe at intervals of 30 seconds for 5 minutes. 6. Put results in a results table 7. Repeat twice to gain an average 8. Repeat method again with different hydrochloric acid concentrations such as 1m, 1.25m, 1.5m and 1.75m Fair testing Fair testing can help you're experiment be as accurate that it can be by giving you accurate results and no awkward results. ...read more.

Middle

Results Number of minutes 0.75m 1m 1.25m 1.5m 1.75m 0.5 3 4 5 8 9 1 5 6 10 17 19 1.5 7 10 17 26 30 2.0 10 14 25 37 42 2.5 14 19 33 49 53 3.0 18 23 40 58 65 3.5 21 29 49 68 76 4.0 25 34 58 80 86 4.5 29 40 66 84 94 5.0 34 44 75 100 101 Amount of gas produced (ml) 34 44 75 100 101 1. Concentration of acid Number of minutes 0.75m 1m 1.25m 1.5m 1.75m 0.5 3 2 5 5 10 1 5 5 10 14 23 1.5 10 9 17 24 38 2.0 15 14 25 34 51 2.5 22 19 33 44 67 3.0 30 25 41 54 82 3.5 37 31 49 64 94 4.0 45 36 55 75 *103 4.5 51 42 62 85 5.0 58 47 70 93 Amount of gas produced (ml) 58 47 70 93 103 2. Concentration of acid * Means that the amount of gas produced went of the scale on the gas syringe. Number of minutes 0.75m 1m 1.25m 1.5m 1.75m 0.5 3 3 5 6.5 9.5 1 5 5.5 10 15.5 21 1.5 8.5 9.5 17 25 34 2.0 12.5 14 25 35.5 46.5 2.5 18 19 33 46.5 60 ...read more.

Conclusion

9 2.0 15 14 2.5 22 19 3.0 30 25 3.5 37 31 4.0 45 36 4.5 51 42 5.0 58 47 Amount of gas produced (ml) 58 47 Here are the anomalies results as you can see the 0.75m has produced more gas in the same amount of time than the 1m this is wrong because an acid with a higher concentration than 0.75m should always produce more gas and have a quicker reaction time. The reason for the anomalies results is because we did these two molar tests on two different days so one day could have been more warmer than the other because the temperature does affect the rate of reaction. The method was a good way of doing this experiment but the problem I had is with the equipment. One reason is if I would had a bigger syringe I would have gained better averages for example my 1.75m hydrochloric acid went off the scale at about 4 minutes. The way I could improve this test is by having a thermometer in the hydrochloric acid to keep an average of the temperature it is reacting at so I can spot the anomalies results by saying it was to warm on the day or too cold on that particular day. Parin Chouhan 11J 07/05/2007 ...read more.

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