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Rates of Reaction

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Introduction

Investigating how the changing the concentration of a reactant can affect the Rate of Reaction Planning In this Investigation I will find out how the Rate of Reaction can be affected by the factor: Change of Concentration I could have chosen from several different factors which I had studied in previous sessions: * Catalyst * Temperature * Surface area * Concentration * Pressure I choose changing the concentration of a reactant because that was the only factor available when I started researching and brainstorming on this particular topic. So therefore my hypothesis for this Investigation will be: The higher the concentration of the independent variable (hydrochloric acid), the quicker the speed will be for the dependant variable (magnesium ribbon) to make product (hydrogen). Explanation I believe that the time it takes for the two variables to make a product increases as the molecular mass of the hydrochloric acid increases, because when you increase the concentration of an acid you increase the number of acid molecules which increase the frequency of collision between the magnesium particles and the acid particles. The magnesium reacts with the hydrochloric acid because it is higher placed in the reactivity series. Equation Magnesium+ Hydrochloric acid? Magnesium Chloride+ Hydrogen Mg (s) ...read more.

Middle

skin contact with acid * Wash hands before leaving laboratory * Never taste laboratory materials * Clear table of all unnecessary objects such as clothes or bags Obtaining Evidence Rate of Reaction Recorded in Table Concentration of 2HCl (M) R.O.R: Trial 1 (s) Trial 2 (s) Trial averages(s) 0.50M 2607 2614 2610.5 0.75M 1277 1261 1269 1.00M 180s 181s 180.5s 1.50M 107 105 106 1.75M 80 71 75.5 2.00M 55 50 52.5 I have not repeated any of the results because they were all fairly close to each other. I will now plot the trial averages on a scatter graph. I will draw scatter graph because I believe it will represent my results in a decent manner and show if I have any anomalous results. The Y-axis will state the rate of reaction in seconds from 0s to 3000s and the X-axis will state the concentration from 0.00M to 2.00M. Analysis See bigger graph next page ? Rates of Reaction Averages Graph Conclusion The results of my investigation support the prediction that I made. My prediction was: The higher the concentration of the independent variable (hydrochloric acid), the quicker the speed will be for the dependant variable (magnesium ribbon) to make product (hydrogen). ...read more.

Conclusion

The investigation has gone positively and proved my prediction to be correct. Improvements If could do this investigation again I would try to change my entire method for faster more effective results: New method: 1. Collect all apparatuses and variables needed for experiments, and check that everything is there. 2. Measure variables to correct length or volume and units. Cut the 24 strips of magnesium ribbons to correct length (5mm). Measure each concentration in measuring cylinder to 10cm(, by using a pipette to extract 2HCl. 3. Pour the measured 2HCl into test tubes. 4. Put the Magnesium into the 2HCl tubes and time the time taken for the reaction to finish by using the stop clock. 5. Convert time in minutes to seconds by multiplying by 60 and record results in the table. If the results are close the hundredth of a second make sure to round up or down e.g. 51.96=52 seconds. 6. Cleanse measuring instruments and tubes and repeat the experiment 6 times because of the six different concentrations and each trial 4 times to calculate an average. For faster results I would increase the volume of 2HCL and decrease the length of the mg ribbon and I would repeat the trials twice as many times. By Rabile Mahamud 1 ...read more.

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