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# Rates Of reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rates of reaction Aim To find out by investigating how the temperature affects the rate of a chemical reaction. Prediction I predict that the higher the temperature of the acid the quicker the reaction will be. This is because the particles will have more kinetic energy in them, as the heat energy will transfer to kinetic, as the higher the temperature, the more energy it provides. The higher the temperature, the quicker the reaction will be as the particles will move faster and will cause them to collide more often with each other. This will cause the reaction to take place faster as the particles move faster, giving them more chance to collide into each other. The quicker the fizz from the reaction stops, the quicker the reaction happened, as Co2 gas has been released. This is called the Collision Theory, it states two things: 1. For any reaction to take place, the particles have to have collided together, in order to react. 2. The particles have to have enough energy to react with the other particle. In a reaction many particles may collide but not all will result in a reaction. Word equation Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> Calcium chloride + Carbon dioxide + Water CaCo? + 2HCL --> CaCl2 + Co2 + H 2O Preliminary Investigation. Firstly I will carry out a preliminary investigation to find out which concentration of acid will be the best to use for the investigation. ...read more.

Middle

Output Variable I will measure the time it takes for the reaction to stop. I will know when the reaction has stopped when the bubbles of Carbon Dioxide stop appearing. We know that bubbles will occur from the word equation; Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide. This will be an accurate way to measure the time. This is because each temperature will be repeated three times so I can get an average. We will be plotting Temperature against Time and Temperature against Rate of Reaction. Equipment Chemicals 1 Bunsen burner Calcium Carbonate powder 1 Gauze Hydrochloric Acid 1 Tripod 2 Conical flasks 1 Measuring cylinder 1 Thermometer 1 Stop watch Safety goggles Make sure you wash your hands if in contact with Hydrochloric acid or Calcium Carbonate. Ensure that you wear goggles at all times. Diagram Method 1) Draw a results table ready to record the data in. 2) Measure out 0.1g of powdered Calcium Carbonate using an electronic balance Measure out 30ml of the 0.5m Hydrochloric acid using the measuring cylinder. 3) Set up the equipment, like shown in the diagram above 4) Place calcium carbonate (0.1g) in the conical flask. 5) Place the Hydrochloric acid (30ml)-in a beaker, on top of the gauge. Make sure the flame is blue/see through. 6) Use the thermometer to measure the temperature, when at the temperature required pour the acid into the conical flask- start the stopwatch. ...read more.

Conclusion

During the reaction the rate starts to slow down (b). At the end there is no rate, this is when the reaction has stopped. My graph also shows an anomalous point. This could be because; we measured the time of the reaction instead of the rate of reaction. Therefore the experiment will show a negative point, and below explains the rate. Evaluation My results were fairly accurate because the repeated results were closely together and all my points were on the curve or near the curve. Although my results were accurate, I had two anomalous points, one on each graph. I did not have any trouble carrying out the investigation. I f I did this experiment again I would repeat each temperature another three times. This is because I probably would not get any anomalies, and the average results would be more reliable. Another experiment I could do to test "rate of reaction". I could carry the same experiment out with Magnesium Carbonate or Zinc Carbonate instead of Calcium Carbonate. By using theses chemicals, I will still be able to find out if the temperature affects the Rate of Reaction. If I was to use Magnesium or Zinc Carbonate, then my conclusion would improve as I have another set of reliable evidence. Otherwise, we could test how much Carbon Dioxide would be produced, however we would need to use a computer to pick up the results. These results will be reliable, and I would be able to see if "Temperature affects the Rate of Reaction". ...read more.

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