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Rates of Reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

Rates of Reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Aim: To investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. To do this I must change a variable to see what effect it has on the speed of the reaction. Possible variables include: the size (surface area) of the marble chips (calcium carbonate), the amount of marble chips, the amount of hydrochloric acid, the pH of the hydrochloric acid, the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, and the temperature of the acid. In my experiment I have chosen only to change the temperature of the acid. Equations: The word and symbol equations for the reaction between the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid are: calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid ==> calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) ==> CaCl2(aq) + H2O + CO2(g) Prediction: I can predict that my results will show positive correlation between the rate of reaction and temperature of the acid, so that as the temperature is increased, the rate of reaction shall also increase. This is because that for a reaction to occur particles must collide with sufficient energy (speed) to break the bonds within the reactant molecules and also form new bonds to produce the product. The higher the temperature of the acid, the more energy the particles will have, increasing the chances of a successful collision and allowing the bonds to be broken down and reformed more easily. ...read more.

Middle

I am using this range of temperatures because it includes 26�C which is room temperature, and I believe that this would be the most relevant result, and would also save time because I wouldn't have to heat/cool the acid to a certain temperature, as it would already be at room temperature. Firstly I shall put the 50ml measuring cylinder into the tub of water upside down, filling it with water in the process. Then I will put the tube attached to the bung in it. Then I will measure out roughly 1 gram of marble chips, and put them into the conical flask. I will then measure out 10ml of hydrochloric acid using the 10ml measuring cylinder and then heat it to the appropriate temperature using the water bath (or in the case of 16�C, cool it down in a fridge). I will then add the acid to the conical flask with the marble chips and immediately put the bung in it and start the timer. I shall then begin to take measurements every 30 seconds of how far the water level of the measuring cylinder has gone down. By doing this I will know how much gas has been produced from the reaction, because when it is produced it goes through the tube into the measuring cylinder, rises up through the water to the top and pushes the water downwards. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation: Although the results of my experiment have proved conclusively that the hotter the acid, the faster the reaction will be, they are not firm enough evidence to show by exactly what amount. This is because my results seem to indicate that they are at least slightly inaccurate, because although there are few obviously anomalous results, the amount of gas produced still varies by several millimetres, indicating that many more results should have been taken and that the experiment could have been performed much more accurately. For example, the weight and size of the marble chips were not measured accurately, and were only made sure to weigh roughly 1 gram. To make this experiment more accurate I would have to spend much more time making sure all the marble chips were of exactly the same size and weight. Also, as I said in my analysis, I would allow my experiment to continue for longer until all possible reactions had taken place, so that I would be able to measure how the rate of reaction changes as more of the reactants are used up. To do this, I would have to use a much bigger measuring cylinder that could hold all the gas produced in the reaction without all of the water being pushed out. In fact, instead of using a measuring cylinder I could use a syringe as it would be easier and more accurate to read off. David Shuker DNE - A1 1 1 ...read more.

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