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Rates of Reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

GCSE Coursework Science Rates of Reaction Chantal du Thoit Candidate Number: 0002 01/08/2005 Table of Contents 1) Planning 2 a) What I'm going to do. 2 b) Scientific factors and theorems that affect my plan. 3 c) Apparatus I'm going to use. 4 d) Preliminary Work 5 e) Graph to show figure 1 results 7 f) Prediction 8 2) Method 9 3) Results 10 4) Evaluation 12 5) Conclusion 13 1) Planning a) What I'm going to do. I am going to investigate the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips. I am going to measure 5g of different sized Marble Chips and six different concentrations of Hydrochloric Acid. I will then put the chips into each concentration. They will then react to produce carbon dioxide and water. It is at this point when I start timing how long it takes for the water in the 50cm3 cylinder to be replaced by a gas. b) Scientific factors and theorems that affect my plan. I read a book 'GCSE Chemistry' that states that reaction rates are explained perfectly by Collision Theory - the more collisions there are the higher the rate of reaction. I also read an Internet article that can be found at www.gcsescience.com. It stated that a chemical reaction could only occur between particles that collide (hit each other). Particles could be atoms, ions or molecules. In order for the particles to react with each other, they need to have a minimum amount of energy. ...read more.

Middle

Finding the right chip size to use helped me because if I'd chosen large or small chips I wouldn't have been able to do the experiment properly because the reaction between the chips would have been either too slow or too fast. The reaction can be followed by plotting the gas produced against time. For the reaction with small marble chips, the reaction will be faster. Because of its large surface area, the slope will be steeper. Note that the same mass of calcium carbonate (marble chips) will give the same mass of carbon dioxide whether the chips are large or small. The smaller chips will just do it more quickly. e) Graph to show figure 1 results f) Prediction Using the collision theory, I predict that the lower the concentration, the more time the marble chips will take to react with the acid and produce gas in replacement of the water in the cylinder. I predict this because, if the concentration is low, there are fewer particles to collide with each other. This means that there will be fewer collisions so the rate of reaction will be lower. 2) Method Having determined the chip size to use during my preliminary work, I decided on the other factors that had to be kept the same to ensure that the test would be fair. I kept the amount of acid the same by measuring it out into a 50cm3 measuring cylinder. The marble chips were weighed using a digital balance because these are more accurate than analogue balances. ...read more.

Conclusion

b) In addition I would also add more concentrations after 2 molar to see if they continued along the line shown on my graph or whether there was a rise. Due to the uncertainty around the first three readings, these would need to be excluded when drawing conclusions from my results. This therefore only leaves four readings from which you cannot draw definite conclusions. c) I would change the mass. Instead of having 5g of marble chips I would have 10g. This means that I would also have to increase the amount of acid in the same proportion to make it a fair test; otherwise I would be changing the ratio of marble chip particles to acid particles. d) I finally would change the time at which I measured the CO2 in the cylinder. I.e. when the cylinder is quarter, half or three-quarters full I would stop the stopwatch. I would do this to see whether the reaction started off slowly and increased as it went on, or whether it stayed the same speed throughout. I would be interested to see other experiments like this one, because I could see if those results were similar to my results. I could then do a comparison of them and come up with a better set of results and an even better conclusion. 5) Conclusion I found that when I took the moler concentration higher the time taken to collect the gas got smaller. The conclusion is my results strongly support my prediction of the lower the concentration, the more time taken to collect the gas. ?? ?? ?? ?? Science-Rates of reaction 1 ...read more.

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