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Rates of Reaction Coursework

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Introduction

Rates of Reaction Coursework Robert Flack 2002 0072 class 11KN Aim The aim of this investigation is to find out the factors which affect the rates of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Equation: Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> MgCl�(aq) + H�(g) Magnesium will react with hydrochloric acid, because it is higher in the reactivity series that hydrogen. When the two chemicals react a displacement reaction will take place and the magnesium will displace the hydrogen in the hydrochloric acid forming magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. Prediction Given the collision theory, I predict that the higher concentration of hydrochloric acid, the faster the reaction. This is due to the fact that there are more molecules in the acid likely to collide with the magnesium. The rate of reaction also relates to the surface area of the magnesium, the bigger the area the greater chance of collision and thus the faster the reaction takes place. I also predict that the rate of reaction will be affected by the temperature, the higher the temperature the faster the reaction. Application of heat leads to molecules travelling at a faster speed (greater kinetic energy) and therefore more chance of collision with each other. Activation energy (E�) will lead to the increased potential energy of molecules making a bigger reaction likely. I expect the reaction to halve in time from 1M to 2M as there are double the amount of molecules in 2M than 1M. ...read more.

Middle

Fewer particles fewer collisions More particles, more collisions If the concentration of the catalyst increases the reaction will increase as a catalyst with a larger number of particles means there will be more hydrogen-magnesium collisions The greatest period of reactivity will be at the start of the reaction because there will be more particles present at their highest concentrations. As a reaction progresses the rate will decrease as the substances decrease in concentration. The rate of reaction can be sped up by breaking up the magnesium since the reaction can only occur on the surface of the solid (reactant), breaking the solid down into a power or smaller bits will mean the surface area is increased and consequently, the reaction time is sped up. smaller surface area, reaction larger surface area, reaction takes takes longer less time Given the above factors and the preliminary results it is accurate to predict that the eventual outcome of the experiment will be along the lines of the reaction being quicker when using a more concentrated acid, the higher the temperature and the surface area of the magnesium. Table of Results Time in Seconds s-1 Hydrochloric Acid Molar 1 Test 2 Test Average 1/T 4.0M 4.0 4.4 4.2 0.24 3.5M 5.3 4.9 5.1 0.20 3.0M 7.8 6.3 7.1 0.14 2.5M 8.7 8.7 8.7 0.11 2.0M 12.5 13.3 12.9 0.08 1.5M 29.0 27.9 28.5 0.04 1.0M 53.4 35.2 44.3 0.02 0.5M 294.8 247.03 271.1 0.003 0M no reaction no reaction no reaction 0.0 Analysis After carrying out my experiment I have noticed that as the rate of reaction increases the time the reaction takes to complete decreases. ...read more.

Conclusion

eg- gas syringe. It was also hard to tell when the reaction had finished exactly and the stopping of the recording of the time would have also been inaccurate. I used accurate percentages of water and hydrochloric acid which meant that in that respect I was carrying out a fair test. I made sure that the hydrogen chloride was not contaminated before use and that it was straight from the bottle. The magnesium didn't appear to be pure, on the surface of the magnesium there appeared to be a layer of dirt and grime, this will result in the acid taking a variable amount of time to burn through this tarnished layer and get to the magnesium. This extra time would have lead to the results being inaccurate. I could have combated this by rubbing off the dirt with sand paper or other such erosive material. The experiment was over the period of one lesson, this meant that I could use the 4M acid knowing that it would be constantly the same concentration. If I had done this over a period of a week from lesson to lesson I could have been forced to use a slightly different concentration of acid. As It was, I feel this was accurate. Please see the other methods I have suggested previously for more accurate approaches I could take from here to record a better set of results in the future. To improve the experiment other than changing methods I could have recorded the time using a better stop watch or computer and weighed the magnesium making sure the bits weighed the same . ...read more.

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