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Rates of Reaction experiments

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Contents Page Introduction 2 Factors effect the rates of reaction 2 The effect of temperature on rates of reaction 5 - aim 5 - Fair test 5 - Method 7 - Experiment Results 8 The effect of surface area on rates of reaction 10 - aim 10 - Fair test 10 - Method 12 - Experiment Results 13 The effect of Concentration on rates of reaction - aim 15 - Fair test 16 - Method 17 - Experiment Results 18 The effect of Catalyst on rates of reaction 20 - aim 20 - Fair test 21 - Method 21 - Experiment Results 23 Resources 24 Introduction After learning more about rates of reaction we are now given four different experiments to do. The aims of these experiments are to investigate the effect on the rates of reaction caused by temperature, surface area, concentration and catalyst. Background knowledge Reactants are the chemicals you start off with, the products are chemicals you produce and the activation energy is the amount of energy which colliding particles must have in order to start a chemical and change reactant particles into products. This energy is used in the breaking of chemical bonds What is Rate of Reaction? Rate is a measure of the change that happens in a single unit of time. Rate of reaction is the speed of a chemical reaction calculated by measuring how quickly reactants change into products. The rate of a particular chemical reaction is affected by various factors like temperature, concentration, surface area and catalyst. In a chemical reaction starting materials are called reactants and the finishing materials are called products. It takes time for a chemical reaction to happen. If the reaction only takes a short time to change into the product then that reaction will be assumed as a fast reaction and the rate of reaction is high. If the reaction takes long time to change in to product it is a slow reaction. ...read more.

Middle

ears or eyes and this is dangerous. - Be careful pouring acid into the beaker Method The steps of method will show the way in which I done my experiment A) First we need the calcium carbonate into powder by using the mortal and pistol B) The powder should be measured by using the electronic balance. It should be weighed about grams C) 100 ml of acid should be added to the conical flask D) Put the flask on the electronic balance and then make the reading on the electronic to " 0 " E) Now pour powdered form of calcium carbonate into the flask F) As soon as the reaction begins start the stopwatch G) Then immediately we kept a cotton wool on top of the flask H) Keep taking the record of the weight every minute I) Keep the reaction till 10 minutes and stop the experiment and record the final weight J) Now we had to use the chips instead for the powder of calcium carbonate K) For this reaction do the same steps above and note down the recordings L) Finally I had to put the two results on two different tables. 1 for the powder and the other for the chips Experiment diagram Results We kept the reaction going on for 10 minutes each time to ensure fair test. We had different sets of results, which were 1) Results for Calcium Carbonate - chips 2) Results for Calcium Carbonate - powder Calcium Carbonate - Chips Time (Minutes) Average weight start (g) W1 Average weight finish (g) W2 Weight loss (g) W1- W2 0 20.30 20.30 0 1 20.30 19.8 0.50 2 19.8 18.95 0.85 3 18.95 17.75 1.20 4 17.75 16.12 1.63 5 16.12 14.32 1.80 6 14.32 12.47 1.85 7 12.47 10.56 1.91 8 10.56 8.58 1.98 9 8.58 6.38 2.2 10 6.38 4.18 2.2 Calcium Carbonate - Powder Time (Minutes) ...read more.

Conclusion

3) Heat the test tube 4) During the heat we will see bubbles coming out from coming out 5) Once the bubbles start we need to start counting the bubbles and also start the stopwatch 6) We have to keep the experiment for 10 minutes 7) We have to keep recording the bubbles every minute (start counting the bubbles again from zero once a minute is over) 8) After 10 minutes is over clear stop the reaction and clear all chemicals from the apparatus by washing it 9) Then rearrange the apparatus 10) This time we wont use the catalyst and do the same reaction 11) We had to do the same steps as above 12) After 10 minutes are over and we have recorded all the bubbles we will compare the two results 13) After comparing the results we will find out which experiment gives the most bubbles Experiment diagram Results With catalyst Time (Minutes) Volume of oxygen produced. Number of bubbles produced. Trail 1 Trail 2 Trail 3 Average 2 12 11 13 12 4 22 24 20 22 6 33 36 30 33 8 41 42 40 41 10 46 40 47 44 12 50 51 51 51 Without catalyst Time (Minutes) Volume of oxygen produced. Number of bubbles produced. Trail 1 Trail 2 Trail 3 Average 2 2 1 4 3 4 5 7 8 6 6 7 10 9 8 8 12 18 13 14 10 17 19 16 17 12 23 20 25 22 Conclusion After seeing the results I have found out actually that catalyst speeds up any reaction although I predicted in my prediction but I never thought it would be a big difference in the two reactions Evaluation I think that my results for this experiment were correct although my three of the trials are different from each other but I made an average of the middle number between these three trials by using the formula of: Time 1 + time 2 + time3 3 Resources - www.google.com - Chemistry text book ?? 1 ...read more.

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