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# Rates of Reaction - HCl + Mg

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Planning: I am going to investigate how acid concentration affects the rate of reaction. For this investigation, I am going to use magnesium and hydrochloric acid to test rates of reactions. When I put magnesium into the hydrochloric acid, they start reacting. Bubbles are seen in the solution and hydrogen gas is given off. I know it is hydrogen because when I light the gas with a splint, it makes a popping sound. This is an exothermic reaction because heat is given off as the reactants are used up. Word Equation: Magnesium(s) + Hydrochloric Acid(l) Magnesium Chloride(aq) + Hydrogen(g) Symbol Equation: Mg(s) + 2HCl(l) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Collision Theory: Reactions can only happen when the reactant particles collide. This is called the collision theory. The collision theory states that only a fraction of collisions are successful because for the bond to break and form new bonds, the atoms must have sufficient energy and the right orientation at the moment of impact. This is called the activation energy. There are four factors that affect the rate of reaction. These are temperature, concentration (pressure for air), size of solid particles (surface area) and catalyst. Temperature: The rate of reaction can be increased by increasing the temperature. From the collision theory, I know that reactants will only react if the atoms collide with sufficient energy. ...read more.

Middle

I wouldn't start from 2.5 molar because there will be a little bit left in the conical flask after I pour it out and that would affect the next experiment which would be 2.0 molar making it slightly more concentrated. If I wash out the conical flask, there would still be a little bit of water left and I cannot ensure every bit of water is out and the conical flask is completely dry. So I will start from a low concentration and increase it because a low concentration wouldn't affect a higher concentration. After I have got my 10cm� of hydrochloric acid, I will pour it into the conical flask. Then I will sand and weigh my magnesium ribbon to get 0.66 grams. After that, I will put the magnesium into the conical flask and quickly put the bung on top and start the stop watch. I will then record the amount of hydrogen gas collected in the gas syringe every 5 seconds. Once the magnesium has gone and the reaction is over, I will repeat the experiment 3 times and calculate the average to make my results more reliable and trustworthy. My results will be more accurate because I can compare the results I get with the previous results and if there is a big difference then I will know something went wrong in one of the experiments. Obtaining: Time (sec) ...read more.

Conclusion

Furthermore, how long it took for the reactants to be used up shows that the 2.5 molar had the fastest rate of reaction. Also, all the other results support the theory. The method could be improved by using a gas syringe that opens out more smoothly or putting oil on the syringe to lubricate it. Overall, I think this method was suitable even though I had an anomaly because it still shows me the trend and rate. I think the results I got for molars 0.5 - 2.0 are reliable because the rate increases each time the molar increases. Also, I repeated my experiment to get more reliable data. However, my results aren't accurate because I should be getting the same amount of hydrogen produced for all of the experiments I do. This is because I am using the same amount of magnesium and hydrochloric acid. The only thing that should change is how quickly the hydrogen gas is being produced. This is probably due to the gas syringe not working properly. For further work, I could use sulphuric acid instead of hydrochloric acid. Sulphuric acid which is H2SO4 should have a rate which is twice as fast if I use the same amount of magnesium because it provides twice as many hydrogen atoms. If the rate of reaction increases as the concentration of sulphuric acid increases, then it will support my prediction and conclusion of this experiment. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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