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rates of reaction- hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Rates of reaction Aim: The aim of the experiment is to investigate how the concentrations of hydrochloric acid effects the rate of reaction with magnesium, i.e. how quickly/ how much hydrogen is produced. Experiment Equations: - Magnesium + Hydrogen acid ? Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen - Mg + 2HCl ? MgCl( + H( - Metal + Acid ? Metal Salt + Hydrogen Prediction: I predicted that the rate of reaction will increase when the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases. The reasons for this is because the more particles there are moving around in one place the more chance there is of a collision between the particles with sufficient energy to create a reaction. In the higher concentrations of hydrochloric acid there is more acid particles to collide with the magnesium therefore a higher rate of reaction. Safety: During the practical various measures must be taken to ensure the experiment is carried out safely. These measures are; - Always wear safety goggles (at all times) to ensure no chemicals make contact with eyes. - Avoid contact of acid on skin as it is corrosive. If acid does touch skin wash it off (immediately). ...read more.

Middle

I will completely fill a measuring cylinder with water and then place it upside down inside the trough, which has already been filled with water to the rim. The test tube with the reactants has a delivery tube on the side which I will insert into the measuring cylinder. To start the experiment I have to put the magnesium and acid in the test tube. When I put them together I will quickly place a bung on the top of the test tube so no gas can escape. Also as soon as the magnesium and hydrochloric acid react I will start the timer. The gas should travel to the top of the test tube and travel through the delivery tube to the measuring cylinder. The gas will rise to the top of the measuring cylinder and as the gas collects, the water inside the cylinder will be pushed down so I can see how much gas is collected in there. Each experiment will take 1 minute and in that time I will be recording the amount of hydrogen lost every 10 seconds. But to see if my prediction is right I will use 5 different concentrations. ...read more.

Conclusion

Our best results was graph 2.0 mols because it had fairly small error bars, the reason for this is because we were more accurate in measurements and timing. I repeated each concentration 3 times to ensure that I can get a good average and so that I can effectively show and prove that my prediction is correct. As predicted the average results show that the initial rate of reaction increased as the concentration increased which meets my initial prediction of the whole experiment. This shows that I am confident that my data is accurate and reliable. I think I chose a suitable range of acid concentrations because going up in 0.2 stages shows more specific results. In further experiments I may use weaker or stronger concentrations. I wouldn't use any concentrations too high because this may become dangerous and unsafe. To extend my work even further, I could have gone lower in the concentration or higher. Also I could have gone to just water to check if there was a trend in the results. There is enough evidence and information to support a good conclusion from this experiment but if I had conducted more experiments with more variables like temperature and different materials, I could have created an even more extensive and interesting experiment. ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

***
This has all of the key elements to be a four or five stars piece. However there are some key elements that are missing the preliminary results should be included. Most importantly there is no reference to any of the current scientific knowledge regarding rates of reaction. This knowledge needs to be linked to the results and conclusion without this the report is limited to three stars. Other improvements have been suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 18/03/2013

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