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Rates of Reaction Investigation

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0000Chemistry Investigation July 1998 Stephen Pickett 10E Contents Description Page Front page 1 Contents 2 Brief 3 Research 3-7 Measurements 7 Fair Test 7 Safe Test 8 Methods 8 Plan 8-10 Hypothesis 10 Experiment 10-14 Analysis 14-15 Evaluation 15-16 Chemistry Investigation Brief I am going to investigate how sulphuric acid (H2SO4), when added to magnesium at different concentrations, will affect its rate of reaction. I will measure all sulphuric acid concentrations in moles (M). Research I am already aware that sulphuric acid is an acid that may be used in a variety of ways, for example in some medicines, in gunpowder and photo developing. I also know that magnesium is a metal which oxidises and burns with a high temperature flame. It can be used in explosives and fireworks. The equation for this reaction is: Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) --> MgSO4(aq) + H2(g) the word equation is: Magnesium + Sulphuric Acid --> Magnesium Sulphate + Hydrogen The following information was drawn from the Microsoft Encarta '95 Encyclopaedia and the Britannica on-line Encyclopaedia. Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, corrosive, oily, colourless liquid, with a specific gravity of 1.85. It melts at 10.36� C (50.6� F), boils at 340� C (644� F), and is soluble in all proportions in water. When sulphuric acid is mixed with water, considerable heat is released. Unless the mixture is well stirred, the added water may be heated beyond its boiling point and the sudden formation of steam may blow the acid out of its container. The concentrated acid destroys skin and flesh, and can cause blindness if it gets into the eyes. The best treatment is to flush away the acid with large amounts of water. Despite the dangers created by careless handling, sulphuric acid has been commercially important for many years. The early alchemists prepared it in large quantities by heating naturally occurring sulphates to a high temperature and dissolving in water the sulphur trioxide thus formed. ...read more.


The estimated United States production in the same year was 148,000 metric tons. Measurements I am going to measure the lengths of the magnesium and keep them the same size throughout the experiment. I will do the same for the volume of sulphuric acid, the pH of the sulphuric acid, the temperature of the sulphuric acid and the amount of gas given off from the reaction. Safe Test Before I carry out this experiment I must make sure it is safe. The main points of safety are: * Wear safety goggles at ALL times. * Wear an apron. * Wear gloves. * Put bags and chairs/stools out of the way or under a desk. * Clear desks of all items which are not required for the experiment. * Have a designated person to handle the chemicals. * Always walk carefully around the classroom. * Be careful whilst handling glass. * If you have a problem, ASK THE TEACHER. Fair Test I must make sure that this experiment is fair because I want to get all of my results as accurate as possible. The main points of fairness are: * Keep the chemicals temperatures at the same temperature before starting. * Use the same volume of sulphuric acid. * Use the same length pieces of magnesium ribbon. * Keep the chemicals at the same pH by using buffers. * Make readings at the same times. Methods I am going to use two different methods; one for the preliminary test and one for the main test. For the preliminary investigation I have chosen to use a single test-tube which I will pour the sulphuric acid into, and then later add the magnesium. I will count the bubbles that are produced from the magnesium. I have chosen to do it this way because it is quick and easy to set up and is also quick to use. ...read more.


My results support my prediction and the conclusion I have supplied above matches my hypothesis previously in the assignment. Overall, 1.5M produced the most gas whereas 0.5M produced the least. I think that the reason that 1.0M and 1.5M had a greater amount of gas produced than the 2.0M and the 2.5M because we allowed some of the gas to escape or because the concentrations were not made up properly. Evaluation The equipment I used to carry out this experiment was quite accurate for the investigation. The procedures used were, in my opinion the best for which we could possibly do with the equipment we had available to us. The evidence obtained was quite accurate. The results were quite accurate for the equipment. To make it more accurate we could have taken smaller measurements and even used other methods, for example, the effects temperature and pH have on the sulphuric acid. Better equipment would give us better results e.g. it would be possible to use a highly-sensitive pressure pad connected to a computer with the pad inside a glass jar. As the gas moves into the jar it will compress against the pad and give off a more accurate reading. We would also need a one way tube so that the gas cannot go back into the experiment. My evidence appears to be quite reliable. The slight "fluctuations" in my graph may have been caused by reading off the measurements inaccurately, or from not keeping the temperature of the chemicals the same. However, I think that my results are sufficient to support my conclusion. I think that to improve my results I should have ensured that the temperature of the sulphuric acid is the same and that the strips of magnesium are exactly the same length. I could also test the effects that temperature has on the solution; the effects that increasing/decreasing the amounts of sulphuric acid or the magnesium has. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chemistry Investigation ...read more.

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