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Rates of Reaction Investigation

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RATES OF REACTION INVESTIGATION Planning Aim:- The aim of this investigation is to find out what factors effect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid and what kind of effect does one of the factors have on the rate of reaction between the two. The factor that I'll be looking at is concentration. Factors:- Before actually starting the experiment I did some research to find out what sort of factors generally effect the rate of reaction. There are actually 6 different factors which effect the rate of reaction but there are 4 common ones (learn.co.uk). The factor that I will be looking at is concentration. These factors are listed below * Concentration- the number of particles present. Increasing the concentration of a substance in solution means that there are more particles in the same volume of that substance. Therefore more collisions will take place, increasing the amount of successful collisions (gcsechemistry.com) * Temperature- the temperature of a substance in a chemical reaction (degrees centigrade). Raising the temperature makes the particles move faster. This means that more particles collide with each other per second. The rate of reaction increases. Raising the temperature by 10 degrees will double the rate of reaction. The gradient of the plot increases.(gcsechemistry.com) * Surface area- how big or small the particles are. The number of particles present on the surface. A solid in a solution can only react when particles collide with the surface. The bigger the area of the solid surface, the more particles can collide with it per second, and the faster the reaction rate is. You can increase the surface area of a solid by breaking it up into smaller pieces. A powder has the largest surface area as there are more particles on the surface and will have the fastest reaction rate. This is why catalysts are often used as powders. (gcsechemistry.com) * Catalysts- a substance, usually a transition metal or a transition metal oxide used so that the reacting particles gather on its surface which causes them to collide more frequently with each other. ...read more.


to be ready with the end of the delivery tube near the outlet of the pressure sensor so that it can put in immediately * Get the third person to be ready to start the clock * As soon as you put in the Mg strip the person with the stop clock starts the clock and the person with the bung should close the conical flask immediately while the person with the end of the delivery tube puts the end into the outlet at the same time * Measure the time it takes for the pressure to reach 10 KPa and record it onto your table * Repeat the experiment twice more for 1M concentration of HCL making it a total of three times * Do this experiment 3 times for each concentration of 0.2M, 0.4M, 0.6M, 0.8M, 1M recording the time each time onto the table Range:- For this experiment I have decided to use 5 different concentrations 0.2M, 0.4M, 0.6M, 0.8M, and 1 Molar. I chose these ranges of concentrations because they are easy to calculate using 100ml volume of acid. I chose to do 5 different concentrations so that I would get a more accurate analysis. Fair test:- There are a few things that need to be done to ensure and maintain a fair experiment. * Before starting the experiment make sure that the pressure sensor is on zero * Make sure, when measuring acid read from the lower meniscus every time to get accurate results * Make sure you put the bung onto the conical flask before you put the delivery tube into the outlet of the pressure sensor * Stop the clock at exactly 10KPa on the pressure sensor * Use the same volume of hydrochloric acid for all experiments * Use the same length of the magnesium strips in all experiments * The temperature should be kept constant at room temperature * Make sure the concentration of the acid is changed each time after the experiment is done ...read more.


My results followed the collision theory and the rule for increasing concentration which gave me an accurate results table, accurate graph and an accurate rate graph which helped me draw my conclusion and form a pattern. If I were to do this investigation again I would test a different factor such as temperature. The below is part of what I would do in an investigation concerning the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and magnesium (Mg). Aim: - the aim of this investigation is to find out how temperature affects the rate of reaction between Magnesium (Mg) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl). Method: - I will use the same method as I did in my experiment but instead of using the concentration table I would use a water bath to heat the acid to these temperatures: 25�C, 30�C, 35�C, 40�C, 45�C and then carry out the experiment using these instead of using different concentrations. The diagram below shows how the experiment will be set. Prediction: - I predict that as I increase the temperature the rate of reaction will increase too. To explain this you have to look at the collision theory. In order for particles to react they need to collide successfully, enough energy and sufficient amount of collisions are needed for successful collisions to take place. Increasing the temperature would mean that there will be more energy (in the form of heat) for the particles to collide. More energy will cause the particles to move faster and this will result in particles colliding. If there is enough energy when collisions take place then there is a reaction. Since increasing the temperature results in more energy then the colliding particles will have enough energy to collide successfully and so the rate of reaction will increase (more pressure produced in less time). The sketched graph below shows roughly what the graph of results should look like. The sketched graph below shows roughly what the graph showing the rate of reaction should look like. By Kausar Hussain 10S ...read more.

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