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# Rates of reactions investigation.

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Introduction

Rates of Reactions Investigation Theory The aim of this investigation is to mix two liquid substances together and produce a cloudy substance, a suspension of Sulphur. During this experiment I am going to use Hydrochloric acid and Sodium Thiosulphate to produce a cloudy solution. The solutions provided, produce enough sulphur to make a cross disappear in about 40 seconds. I want to predict the conditions that will be produced in the cross vanishing in exactly 90 seconds. Therefore to do this I need to use the thoery of rates of reactions. The equation below tells us that the precipitate is the solid sulphur which is one of the product of the reaction. Na2S2O3 + 2HCL 2NaCl + H2O + SO2 + S (s) Hydrochloric acid + Sodium Thiosulphate Sulphur + Sulphur Dioxide + Water + Sodium Chloride The rate of a reaction is the speed at which the reactants are made into products. The products show the greatest speed of increase and the reactants show the greatest speed of decrease at the very beginning. This shows clearly that the rate of reaction changes with time. As a result a rate must be particular with a definite time unit. The Rates of Reaction theory can be explained using the Collision Theory. ...read more.

Middle

* Use the same cross for each experiment * The same hydrochloric acid volume * The volume of the total solution at 55cm� * To always use clean equipment * Always keep the same temperature * The same distance between my eye and flask when observing. I will start the experiment by first applying the safety precautions, of goggles and lab coats. I will then take a piece of paper and label on it a cross marked by a waterproof black permanent marker, which will be kept for all experiments. I will gather three chronicle flasks, one to be placed on top of the piece of paper above the cross, and one either side of the paper with a measuring cylinder. The chronicle flask on one side will contain Sodium Thiosulphate and on the other side shall contain Hydrochloric Acid. For the first I will use 50cm� of Thiosulphate, 5cm� of Acid and no water. For all the investigation I am going to use 5cm� of Hydrochloric acid and only change the amount of water and Thiosulphate levels. I am doing this so the acid is going to remain constant so my total volume remains at 55cm�. To start the experiment I pour exactly 50cm� of Thiosulphate into a measuring cylinder from the Thiosulphate chronicle flask. ...read more.

Conclusion

The Sodium Thiosulphate graph (labelled 1) and water graph (labelled 3) are more curvaceous, but the opposite to one and other. From the results I have gathered I can work out the final concentration and compare it to the concentration I get from the graphs. Using the information that Concentration is the wrong way round compared to time I can work out the required concentration. Conclusion Evaluation This experiment is fairly difficult as there is a lot of judgement on human senses that can not always be trusted. If I was to repeat this experiment I would use a light gate to measure the cloudy precipitate as this would eliminate human error from the eye and delay on the retina, and I would also use a magnetic stirrer so that I could be absolutely certain that the solution was sufficiently mixed. My results appear fairly accurate although looking at the tables of raw data one might say that there are a couple of anomaly. However, I feel that I have eradicate these by repeating the experiments and taking the mean. If I had more time I would further my experiment to investigate the ways in which the different factors, such as temperature and surface area,would affect the Rate of Reaction for this equation, and discover how the different rates compare. Oliver Heywood Chemistry Coursework 01/05/2007 ...read more.

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