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Rates of reactions tell us how quickly a chemical reaction happens. A reaction happens when two different particles collide successfully.

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Introduction

Chemistry Investigation Plan Rates of reactions tell us how quickly a chemical reaction happens. A reaction happens when two different particles collide successfully. There are a number of factors which change the speed rate of a chemical reaction, these include * Temperature * Surface Area * Concentration * Catalyst Effect of Concentration A more concentrated solution reacts more quickly. The hydrochloric acid particles can only react with the sodium thiosulphate particles when they collide. The hydrochloric particles and sodium thiosulphate particles move randomly through the liquid. As you increase the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate there will be more particles in the same volume of solution. Therefore there is a greater chance of the sodium thiosulphate particles colliding, and reacting with the hydrochloric particles. This would lead to a faster reaction. Effect of Temperature When the solution is hotter the particles have more energy. The particles move around more quickly. As the particles travel faster, there are more collisions in a set period of time. This means that as we raise the temperature the reaction happens faster. When the particles collide they just bounce off each other. The particles do not collide hard enough to start a reaction. This happens because the particles do not have enough energy. At a higher temperature the particles have more energy so they move faster, this also results in the particles crashing harder together. ...read more.

Middle

This results in a reaction in a reaction happening in a shorter period of time. "M" means "molar". This is a measure of concentration. The 2M solution will contain twice as much acid particles compared to the 1M solution. If there were more acid particles in the same volume of solution than there would be more of a chance of a successful collision between the acid particles (hydrochloric acid) and sodium thiosulphate. Prediction: I predict the higher the concentration of sodium thiosulphate the quicker the chemical reaction between the hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate would take place. Preliminary In order for me to find out if my chosen (ml) volume of sodium thiosulphate is correct, I did trail runs starting with my lowest concentration 40ml of sodium thiosulphate, 10ml of hydrochloric acid and 20ml of water, My total volume was 70ml. I then did a trail run for my highest concentration 60ml of sodium thiosulphate, 10ml of hydrochloric acid and no water (this was my highest concentration as I didn't dilute the solution and I added the most ml's of sodium thiosulphate in this experiment). I did these trail experiments to check if my range of concentration was suitable. Trial Experiment Results Table Volume of Hydrochloric acid (ml) Volume of sodium thiosulphate (ml) Volume of water Total Volume (ml) Time taken for reaction to happen (sulphur to form) ...read more.

Conclusion

This will prevent any irritant, and my volume of liquid will be more accurate. * A stop clock. I will use a stop clock to time the reaction; a stop clock will give me an accurate reading as it reads every 10th of a second. * A beaker or conical flask. I would use this equipment to put all the chemicals and water in for the reaction to take place. * A black dot. I would use a black dot so I can see when the reaction has taken place. I would know this because the liquid turns turbid therefore the black dot disappears and I know that the reaction as happened. Method I will measure the following liquids in individual measuring cylinders, 60ml of sodium thiosulphate and 10ml of hydrochloric acid. I will add the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid into a beaker over a black dot. I will start my stop clock the moment I add all the chemicals into the beaker. When I can no longer see the black dot I will stop the stop clock and record the time taken for the black dot to disappear. I will repeat this method for all my measurements and I will repeat each experiment three times. The table below shows the volume of sodium thiosulphate, hydrochloric acid and water that I will use. Volume of Hydrochloric acid (ml) Volume of Sodium Thiosulphate (ml) Volume of water (ml) Total volume (ml) 10 60 none 70 10 55 5 70 10 50 10 70 10 45 15 70 10 40 20 70 ...read more.

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