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Reacting Magnesium With Hydrochloric Acid

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Introduction

Reacting Magnesium With Hydrochloric Acid Planning Experimental Procedures Aim The aim of this experiment is to investigate how the surface area of a reactant can affect the rate of a reaction. The two reactants we will be using for this experiment are magnesium(Mg) and hydrochloric acid(HCl). Investigation Factors I already know how the concentration of the hydrochloric acid can alter the rate of a reaction, as I carried out an experiment in a previous coursework assignment, in which the aim was to investigate the concentration factor. I also know how the mass of the magnesium and the temperature can affect the rate of a reaction, as I carried out some research in order to find this information out. Written below is a brief summary of the conclusion from my previous experiment, as well as some of the information I found during my research. The Concentration Of The Hydrochloric Acid The more concentrated the reactants are, the greater will be the rate of reaction. This is because the higher the concentration of the hydrochloric acid is, the closer together the ions are and the closer together they are, the more often they will collide with each other. The more often the particles collide, the higher the chance will be of starting a reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. This also explains why the greatest rate of reaction is usually as soon as both the reactants are at their highest concentrations of the reacting substances decrease and the rate of reaction decreases. The Temperature An increase in temperature produces an increase in the rate of a reaction because, when a mixture of substances is heated, the particles move faster. This has two effects. ...read more.

Middle

After the reaction has been going for 30 seconds, measure the amount of hydrogen collected so far and record it into your results table. 7) Measure the amount of hydrogen collected again at the end of the minute and record it once again into your table. 8) Repeat steps 2-7, keeping everything exactly the same, changing only the surface area of the magnesium by cutting one extra piece out of it. 9) Repeat steps 2-8 two more times, in order to make sure the results are accurate and precise. Obtaining The Evidence Calculating The Surface Area Of The Magnesium I required a micrometer to calculate the thickness of the magnesium. In order to calculate the surface area of the magnesium I first had to calculate the area of faces A, B & C on the diagram shown below, and then add all three areas up and multiply them by two as there are six sides on the surface area. My calculations are shown below my diagram. Area of face A=10 x 0.3=3cm2 Area of face B=10 x 0.02=0.2cm2 Area of face C=0.3 x 0.02=0.006cm2 face A + face B + face C=3 + 0.2 + 0.006=3.206cm2 Total surface area=3.206 x 2=6.412cm2 Each time we then cut off another piece of magnesium, two extra areas will be created, with each one having the same area as the area of face C. Therefore, every time we cut another piece of magnesium, we will have to add onto the surface area the area of face C multiplied by two, which gives 0.012cm2(0.006 x 2). Method Used(done after experiment) ...read more.

Conclusion

Our results were more accurate than they would have been had we used the method of timing how long it took for the magnesium to disappear, as this would have been the most inaccurate method of the three main methods. There was a method which was more simple and also, more importantly, more accurate, than the method we chose. This method would have been to collect the gas using a syringe and then measure the amount of hydrogen produced. The reason we were unable to use this method was because there would have been a shortage of syringes, had everyone required one. Although the results were not always exactly the same in each of the re-tests, I think, overall, the method was sufficient, as it provided me with a valid conclusion, as well as a reliable set of results, and it also gave no anomalous results. Investigation Extensions The following investigations could be carried out in order to provide additional evidence to the conclusion: -The experiment could be repeated, though this time using a wider range of surface areas, as the range of surface areas we used wasn't very large. -The experiment could be repeated with a different metal, other than magnesium, to ensure that the conclusion does not just apply to magnesium. -The experiment could also be repeated changing the type of acid used, to ensure that the conclusion does not just apply to hydrochloric acid. -The experiment could be repeated keeping all the factors, including the surface area, the same. My prediction would be that the rate of reaction would be the same. If it was, then this would again prove that the conclusion is correct. ?? ?? ?? ?? GCSE Science Module 6 Coursework ...read more.

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