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Reacting Marble Chips with Dilute Acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Carrie Smith Coursework: Reacting Marble Chips with Dilute Acid Plan Introduction: For any reaction to occur particles must collide with each other and each collision must be with enough energy for the reaction to be passed on through each particle. When this happens, the original bonds between the particles are broken and so new bonds are formed, making new products. Collisions that are successful and of a sufficient energy, can have an increase or a decrease in the rate of their reaction by the following factors: Temperature: As the temperature increases, so does the rate of reaction because the heat supplies the particles with more energy, and so they move and vibrate faster. When this happens, there are more collisions; each collision with an energy above that of the activation energy, and so it is with more force and success that the collisions take place. Surface Area: The larger the surface area, the quicker the rate of reaction because when the marble is in powder form, the surface area is larger therefore there are less layers of particles, so the nitric acid particles do not need to break down any layers to get to the centre particles, unlike during the same reaction between marble in chip form, when the opportunities for the nitric acid particles to collide with the marble chip particles is limited. Catalysts: A catalyst affects the rate of reaction because it speeds the reaction by lowering the activation energy needed, therefore more collisions are successful. It does this without itself being used up and the catalyst is usually a transition metal. Concentration: When concentration is lower, there are less nitric acid particles and more water particles. This means that there will be fewer collisions, as there are less acid particles to collide with the marble chip particles, and so the energy released is of a smaller amount each time, making the rate of reaction decrease. This also means there are more acid particles to collide with the marble chip particles. ...read more.

Middle

0.63 0.56 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.55 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.63 Average: 0.57 Concentration (M): 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Time (s) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Average volume of gas (cm�) 4.75 5.75 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 Average Rate of Reaction: 0.48 0.29 0.22 0.18 0.15 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 Average: 0.19 Analysis: From the experiment of reacting marble chips and dilute nitric acid I have conducted, I have discovered that, generally, as the concentration increases, so does the rate of reaction. By using my graph and average results, I can see there is a steady pattern and so therefore, my prediction is correct because there are few anomalous results, all of which I have stated in my evaluation. The steeper the curve of the line is, the quicker the rate of reaction. The steepest line is that of the highest concentration and the flattest line belongs to the 0.4M concentration which obviously has the slowest reaction rate. The 1.6M, 1.2M and 0.8M concentrations all fit between these points with 1.6 having the second most fastest reaction time, 1.2 being third quickest and 0.8 being second slowest. When the concentration is higher there are more nitric acid particles as opposed to a smaller number of water particles which means there are more nitric particles to collide with the marble chips and also it is easier for the nitric acid particles to reach the marble chips and collide with them. This meant that more gas was produced. When the concentration is lower, there are less acid particles compared to that of the water particles, so there are less collisions between the marble chips and the nitric acid particles. This means that less gas is produced. This was what I prophesised in my prediction when I stated that "as the concentration is increased, so will the rate of reaction". ...read more.

Conclusion

2. Switch the water bath to 30�C and place each test tube in there 3. Leave each test tube in the water bath for thirty minutes whilst you set up the experiment as shown in the diagram 4. After this, take the 1.0M labelled test tube and empty the contents into the conical flask of the apparatus 5. Press the timer so at the same time the nitric acid solution runs into the conical flask containing the marble chips 6. Every 10 seconds for a period of 100 seconds, measure the volume of the gas syringe 7. Repeat this for 0.8M, 0.6M, 0.4M, 0.2M concentrations If I had a longer period of time to conduct the experiment of reacting marble chips with dilute acid, I would have adapted the following and fit it into a new method whilst still using the same apparatus to expand my knowledge of rates of reaction even more so: * Temperature: I would alter the temperature to a lower and higher degrees to see how this affected the different rates * Surface Area: I would use a powder form of marble and a larger rock to compare the results * Catalyst: I may add a catalyst to see if it affects the volume and speed of gas produced * Concentration: Also I would use a different concentration such as the following to see if the pattern is still the same: Concentration (M) Volume of Nitric Acid (cm�) Volume of water (cm�) 1.0 25 0 0.9 22.5 2.5 0.8 20 5 0.7 17.5 7.5 0.6 15 10 0.5 12.5 12.5 0.4 10 15 0.3 7.5 17.5 0.2 5 20 0.1 2.5 22.5 It would also have been possible to use a different acid such as Sulphuric acid instead of Nitric acid to compare the different results if there are any. Also, more repeats would have helped me to come to a more definite conclusion. I conclude that all of the above things stated in my evaluation would help me to test rates of reactions in other areas, therefore developing my understanding and widening my knowledge of the topic. ...read more.

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