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Reaction between Magnesium and hydrochloric Acid

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Introduction

Reaction between Magnesium and hydrochloric Acid 2HCl(aq)+ Mg(s) Hydrochloric acid + Magnesium ribbon Aim My experiment will investigate the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium. The aim is to establish the relationship between the concentration of the hydrochloric acid and the rate of reaction. Since the rate of reaction may also be affected by temperature and volume, to ensure a fair test, these will be kept constant, and only the concentration of hydrochloric acid will be varied. Prediction My prediction is that whilst keeping all other variables being constant, the rate of reaction will be proportional to the concentration of hydrochloric acid. The higher the concentration the higher the rate of reaction. This could be due to the number of molecules of hydrochloric acid being proportional to the concentration. The rate of reaction will be proportional to the number of acid molecules that are available to collide and react with the magnesium. The Collision Theory states that a reaction occurs between chemical reactants when they collide with enough activation energy to break any existing bonds and reform the bonds of the resulting compound. Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy that particles require for a successful collision resulting in a reaction. The conditions affecting rate of reaction are: a) Concentration-This determines the relative number of particles available to collide. ...read more.

Middle

ARE AS FOLLOWS: From the graph( on the next page, we see that there is a common trend, (with one exception, the last result). From the graph we see that as concentration of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) increases, the time hydrogen takes to displace 50 cm3 of water in the measuring tube decreases. This means that if a higher concentration of hydrochloric acid was reacting with magnesium more hydrogen would be produced in a shorter time. From graph( we see that as concentration increases so does the rate. The very last result on both graphs however indicates an error has occurred during the practical. Errors can be due to many factors making it an anomaly. The factors that affect the time taken to displace 50cm3 of water in my experiment are: 1) Human Error 2) Temperature 3) Length of magnesium 4) Concentration of acid 5) Amount of magnesium in contact with HCl Human error As with any experiment, human error will always be a likely factor that will affect the time taken to displace 50cm3 of water. The time taken to look at the rate of water displacement, will always be a liability to the accuracy of the results i.e. the time lag in starting of the clock soon after dropping the magnesium in the acid and once 50cm3 of water has been displaced, the time taken to react, and press the stop button on the stop clock, will always affect the accuracy of the results. ...read more.

Conclusion

There appears to be an increase in the rate of reaction above 1.0 M of HCl. (I would think that optimum reaction between Mg with HCl is above 1.0M concentration of HCl. This would mean that the reaction is slower at concentrations of HCl below 1.0 Mole) . EVALUATION The accuracy and precision of the experiment was of a medium standard thus the results were of the same quality. The method was very efficiently performed to a good standard. Apart from the last result, the results obtained show that as concentration increases, the time taken to displace 50cm3 of water decreases. Obviously surrounding temperature around the Magnesium ribbon (Mg) could not be kept completely constant i.e. it was kept in room temperature (20o-25o). I would improve the experiment by extending the concentration ranges to see if there is a limit to the rate of reaction and concentration. I.e. does the rate of reaction increase to infinity with concentration? I would also experiment by varying the length of magnesium. I would scratch the surface of the magnesium ribbon (Mg) so that any oxide formed will be taken away and only Magnesium ribbon (Mg) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) are reacting. I could find out more by investigating the effect of temperature on the reaction between Magnesium ribbon (Mg) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) and measure the reaction rate at different temperatures. BENITO SEGARAJASINGHE ...read more.

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