• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Reaction of Alcohol Lab

Extracts from this document...


Name: Teacher: Date: October 16, 2010 Purpose: To test the theories of how the molecular structure of an organic molecule affects its properties and determine the different isomers of butanol through comparison of their reactions with distilled water, Lucas Reagent and Potassium Permanganate. Materials: - Unknown butanol isomers A, B, C, D - Pipettes - Distilled water - Lucas Reagent (conc. HCl + ZnCl2) - Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) - pH probe/ pH paper - Test tubes (4) - Test tube rack - Rubber stoppers (4) - Goggles - 10-mL measuring cylinder - 25-mL measuring cylinder Flowchart: Prediction: Distilled Water Lucas Reagent Distilled Water & KMnO4 n-butanol Lowest solubility; mixture should be heterogeneous Takes much longer than 5min to turn cloudy Colour changes; pH should turn acidic, since it becomes an aldehyde and then a carboxylic acid i-butanol 2nd lowest ...read more.


- Remains purple - No reaction B Solution Colourless Transparent Rubbing alcohol scent - Heterogeneous solution with opaque solution suspended between clear solution; 1:2 ratio - Rubbing alcohol scent - 2nd highest solubility among the 4 isomers - Forms precipitate a few minutes later - Clear solution with yellowish-brown colour after heating - Smoke smell - Changes to brown colour - On pH paper, it turns to green (pH value:7) - Neutral C Solution Colourless Transparent Rubbing alcohol scent - Forms 2 layers; opaque layer on top, and transparent layer at the bottom; 1:1 ratio - Rubbing alcohol scent - Lowest solubility among the 4 isomers - Clear solution - Opaque white colour after heating - Burnt smell - Changes to brown colour - On pH paper, it turns to orange (pH value: 3) ...read more.


From the results of Lucas Reagent, we can also conclude that A is t-butanol, since the reaction happened immediately. B can be concluded as s-butanol, since the reaction happened after a few minutes. However, both C and D had no reaction, so they are the primary alcohols i-butanol and n-butanol. However, it's still not clear as to what C and D are. Distilled water helps measure the solubility of the isomers. With isomeric alcohols, the solubility increases with branching because more branching makes the isomer more polar. Isomer C is more soluble than isomer D, so it's more polar and has more branching than D. Isobutanol has more branches and is more polar than n-butanol, so C is i-butanol, while D is n-butanol. Conclusion: Butanol A is t-butanol, Butanol B is s-butanol, Butanol C is i-butanol, Butanol D is n-butanol. ?? ?? ?? ?? 2 | Page ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

5 star(s)

Awarded 5 stars for excellent scientific knowledge and well planned out methods. Great detailed predictions at the start and clear analysis of the results. Only one improvement would be to add in some background knowledge about alcohols - primary, secondary and tertiary.

Marked by teacher Patricia McHugh 01/12/2012

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. To compare the efficiency of different alcohols as fuel sources

    12 3 220.4 219.2 1.2 16 26 10 Conclusion The results that I found out are not what I predicted. I predicted that Butanol would loose the most energy. But clearly propanol has the greatest loss. My results indicate that propanol had the greatest loss by a large margin; I

  2. Investigating the Combustion of Alcohols

    The calculation of the enthalpy change of combustion below uses the bond values quoted in the tables above. H ? H?C?O?H + 11/2 O=O --> O=C=O + 2H?O?H ? H Bonds broken in reactants: positive Bonds made in products: negative 3 (C?H)

  1. Benzoic acid lab report

    The peak positions, appearance and relative size all matched exactly, it shows the purity of compounds is high. This experiment left many sources where there could be error. When boiling the benzoic acid and ether, some of the solution may be lost through vaporization even thought stir bar was used.

  2. Esters. Esters are formed from an alcohol and carboxylic acid; this is an ...

    It is a soluble in propylene glycol, paraffin oil, and kerosene. Ethyl butyrate is one of the most common chemicals used in flavors and fragrances. It can be used in a variety of flavors orange (most common), cherry, pineapple, mango, guava, bubblegum, peach, apricot, fig, and plum.

  1. Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols.

    * Tabulate all of the results. * Work out the mass of alcohol burnt on each occasion Sources used in making the plan. * Salter's teacher support: Coursework guidelines sheets OCR 2004, Second edition page 21 * Developing fuels worksheets - Salter's advanced chemistry 2000.

  2. Which Alcohol is the best fuel?

    to see if they kept some of the heat in and improved my results minimizing the amount of heat being let into the surroundings. Table of results: A random alcohol tested for two minutes Temp of water before Temp of water after Temp change With blocks 20?

  1. Comparing the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Different Alcohols

    -475.00 Butan-1-ol -2676 -1427.44 As can be seen from the table above, my results for the ?Hc for each alcohol vary greatly from the standard ?Hc. When plotted on a graph these results show an interesting correlation, as both of the lines present on my graph are parallel to each other.

  2. Burning alcohols.

    As for the most efficient fuel, this can be worked out by seeing which alcohol transfers the energy by using up the least amount of fuel. The fuels I am going to use are: - Ethanol - Propanol - Butanol - Pentanol I cannot use methanol as it is too

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work