• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Reaction of Alcohol Lab

Extracts from this document...


Name: Teacher: Date: October 16, 2010 Purpose: To test the theories of how the molecular structure of an organic molecule affects its properties and determine the different isomers of butanol through comparison of their reactions with distilled water, Lucas Reagent and Potassium Permanganate. Materials: - Unknown butanol isomers A, B, C, D - Pipettes - Distilled water - Lucas Reagent (conc. HCl + ZnCl2) - Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) - pH probe/ pH paper - Test tubes (4) - Test tube rack - Rubber stoppers (4) - Goggles - 10-mL measuring cylinder - 25-mL measuring cylinder Flowchart: Prediction: Distilled Water Lucas Reagent Distilled Water & KMnO4 n-butanol Lowest solubility; mixture should be heterogeneous Takes much longer than 5min to turn cloudy Colour changes; pH should turn acidic, since it becomes an aldehyde and then a carboxylic acid i-butanol 2nd lowest ...read more.


- Remains purple - No reaction B Solution Colourless Transparent Rubbing alcohol scent - Heterogeneous solution with opaque solution suspended between clear solution; 1:2 ratio - Rubbing alcohol scent - 2nd highest solubility among the 4 isomers - Forms precipitate a few minutes later - Clear solution with yellowish-brown colour after heating - Smoke smell - Changes to brown colour - On pH paper, it turns to green (pH value:7) - Neutral C Solution Colourless Transparent Rubbing alcohol scent - Forms 2 layers; opaque layer on top, and transparent layer at the bottom; 1:1 ratio - Rubbing alcohol scent - Lowest solubility among the 4 isomers - Clear solution - Opaque white colour after heating - Burnt smell - Changes to brown colour - On pH paper, it turns to orange (pH value: 3) ...read more.


From the results of Lucas Reagent, we can also conclude that A is t-butanol, since the reaction happened immediately. B can be concluded as s-butanol, since the reaction happened after a few minutes. However, both C and D had no reaction, so they are the primary alcohols i-butanol and n-butanol. However, it's still not clear as to what C and D are. Distilled water helps measure the solubility of the isomers. With isomeric alcohols, the solubility increases with branching because more branching makes the isomer more polar. Isomer C is more soluble than isomer D, so it's more polar and has more branching than D. Isobutanol has more branches and is more polar than n-butanol, so C is i-butanol, while D is n-butanol. Conclusion: Butanol A is t-butanol, Butanol B is s-butanol, Butanol C is i-butanol, Butanol D is n-butanol. ?? ?? ?? ?? 2 | Page ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

5 star(s)

Awarded 5 stars for excellent scientific knowledge and well planned out methods. Great detailed predictions at the start and clear analysis of the results. Only one improvement would be to add in some background knowledge about alcohols - primary, secondary and tertiary.

Marked by teacher Patricia McHugh 01/12/2012

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Investigating the Combustion of Alcohols

    Alcohol Nuffield Data Book Enthalpy Change of Combustion /kJmol-1 Difference/ kJ Methanol -726.0 0 Ethanol -1367.3 641.3 Propan-1-ol -2021.0 653.7 Butan-1-ol -2675.6 654.6 Pentan-1-ol -3328.7 653.1 From the results quoted above it can be seen that the difference between the enthalpy change of combustion value of one alcohol and the next is nearly the same, suggesting that the -CH2?

  2. An investigation to find out the effect of carbon chains on the boiling point ...

    Results ( ?c) Methanol 62 64 Ethanol 80 82 Propanol 100 102 Propan-2-ol 180 85 Butanol 120 115 Pentanol 130 135 Hexanol 155 155 2-Methyl Propan-2-ol 80 85 A table to show the real boiling points of certain alcohols: Alcohol Boiling point (?c)

  1. Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols.

    1.75g Starting temperature of water (�C) 23�C Final temperature of water (�C) 38�C As you can see these results are a lot more reliable than the previous set of results. The value obtained for methanol is similar to the other values obtained for that particular fuel.

  2. Esters. Esters are formed from an alcohol and carboxylic acid; this is an ...

    Industrially-speaking, its also one of the cheapest chemicals, which maybe why it is so commonly used. It can be synthesized by reacting ethanol and butyric acid. This is a condensation reaction, meaning water is produced in the reaction as a byproduct.

  1. The Combustion of Alcohols and the factors affecting these reactions

    = 694 1 � C-O: 1 � 358 = 358 1 � O-H: 1 � 464 = 464 4.5 � O=O: 4.5 � 498 = 2241 Total: + 6641 kJ/mole Bonds Making (-) 6 � O=C: 6 � 805 = 4830 8 � O-H: 8 � 464 = 3712 Total:

  2. Investigation to compare quantitatively the concentration of reducing sugars in samples of fresh orange, ...

    for the Benedict's test is to filter out the brick red precipitate and measure the intensity of the blue copper sulphate solution left. For no light to be absorbed use the most concentrated solution to set the colorimeter to zero.

  1. Which Alcohol is the best fuel?

    I will be careful when using the blocks as they could make my results inaccurate. To ensure fairness I will leave the three blocks in position around the burner and I will only remove the one block to light and extinguish the flame.

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    Atoms are arranged in the Periodic Table in order of increasing atomic number. The atomic number is always the smallest number against an element; the other number will either be the mass number of the most common isotope of the relative atomic mass of the element.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work