• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Reaction of Alcohol Lab

Extracts from this document...


Name: Teacher: Date: October 16, 2010 Purpose: To test the theories of how the molecular structure of an organic molecule affects its properties and determine the different isomers of butanol through comparison of their reactions with distilled water, Lucas Reagent and Potassium Permanganate. Materials: - Unknown butanol isomers A, B, C, D - Pipettes - Distilled water - Lucas Reagent (conc. HCl + ZnCl2) - Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) - pH probe/ pH paper - Test tubes (4) - Test tube rack - Rubber stoppers (4) - Goggles - 10-mL measuring cylinder - 25-mL measuring cylinder Flowchart: Prediction: Distilled Water Lucas Reagent Distilled Water & KMnO4 n-butanol Lowest solubility; mixture should be heterogeneous Takes much longer than 5min to turn cloudy Colour changes; pH should turn acidic, since it becomes an aldehyde and then a carboxylic acid i-butanol 2nd lowest ...read more.


- Remains purple - No reaction B Solution Colourless Transparent Rubbing alcohol scent - Heterogeneous solution with opaque solution suspended between clear solution; 1:2 ratio - Rubbing alcohol scent - 2nd highest solubility among the 4 isomers - Forms precipitate a few minutes later - Clear solution with yellowish-brown colour after heating - Smoke smell - Changes to brown colour - On pH paper, it turns to green (pH value:7) - Neutral C Solution Colourless Transparent Rubbing alcohol scent - Forms 2 layers; opaque layer on top, and transparent layer at the bottom; 1:1 ratio - Rubbing alcohol scent - Lowest solubility among the 4 isomers - Clear solution - Opaque white colour after heating - Burnt smell - Changes to brown colour - On pH paper, it turns to orange (pH value: 3) ...read more.


From the results of Lucas Reagent, we can also conclude that A is t-butanol, since the reaction happened immediately. B can be concluded as s-butanol, since the reaction happened after a few minutes. However, both C and D had no reaction, so they are the primary alcohols i-butanol and n-butanol. However, it's still not clear as to what C and D are. Distilled water helps measure the solubility of the isomers. With isomeric alcohols, the solubility increases with branching because more branching makes the isomer more polar. Isomer C is more soluble than isomer D, so it's more polar and has more branching than D. Isobutanol has more branches and is more polar than n-butanol, so C is i-butanol, while D is n-butanol. Conclusion: Butanol A is t-butanol, Butanol B is s-butanol, Butanol C is i-butanol, Butanol D is n-butanol. ?? ?? ?? ?? 2 | Page ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

5 star(s)

Awarded 5 stars for excellent scientific knowledge and well planned out methods. Great detailed predictions at the start and clear analysis of the results. Only one improvement would be to add in some background knowledge about alcohols - primary, secondary and tertiary.

Marked by teacher Patricia McHugh 01/12/2012

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. The Combustion of Alcohols and the factors affecting these reactions

    217.46 215.75 1.71 1.28 100 20 35 15 215.93 214.66 1.29 100 21 36 15 214.67 213.44 1.28 Ethanol 100 21 36 15 210.77 209.45 1.22 1.21 100 20 35 15 209.38 208.60 0.78 100 21 36 15 208.47 207.27 1.20 Propanol 100 21 36 15 211.09 210.29 0.80 0.82

  2. Benzoic acid lab report

    During both of vacuum filtrations, some of the solid may be gotten through the filter. When using the separatory funnel, some of the organic layer may have drained through, or not the entire aqueous layer was drained through Also when using the separatory funnel, it is possible to lose some

  1. Investigating the Combustion of Alcohols

    The theoretical value according to the Spreadsheet data and the Nuffield Data Book for the standard enthalpy change of combustion of methanol is -726 kJmol-1. Clearly, this value is much greater than that obtained in this experiment. This difference is most probably due to the large heat losses that occurred in this experiment.

  2. Hydrocarbons As Fuels.

    If gases such as methane and hydrogen are to be used as alternatives to petrol in vehicles, the problems of storage of large amounts of gas must be solved. What is fractional distillation? The process of fractional distillation is used to separate the components of a mixture of liquids by means of the differences in their boiling temperatures.

  1. GCSE Chemistry Coursework-Burning Fuels Investigation

    For example measuring the fuel using 3 different scales and averaging the combined measurement to get the accurate mass. To combat the problem of using different equipment in each run is to ensure that the equipment used is clearly labelled and in a place where the investigators can locate it.

  2. To determine which alcohol makes the best fuel for burning.

    22 32 200.39 198.82 24 41 Propanol 198.41 189.72 24 37 198.82 197.51 22 46 204.08 203.02

  1. "Could Sainsbury's add value to their business by using an alternative fuel for their ...

    Hence, for any conclusions to be valid we will have to assume continuity of current fuel price trends in the medium term. > The firm will be able to reclaim VAT paid on fuel and on the conversion costs. > At present there are only 25 service stations offering natural gas in the UK.

  2. To compare the efficiency of different alcohols as fuel sources

    think external factors affected this experiment and if it was done under controlled conditions butanol would have had the greatest mass loss. I said that ethanol would have had the smallest change in weight this was proven I have drawn a graph to show this point.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work