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Reaction Rates Investigation

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Introduction

Reaction Rates Investigation In this experiment I will be investigating into how the change in concentration of acid can affect the rate of the chemical reaction. To keep the results precise, the variable I am changing will be the concentration of Hydrochloric acid but the volume of the solution, temperature of environment and the measured time will stay the same. But I will be considering changing the amount / surface area of Magnesium to help achieve the most precise and reliable results. I predict that the change in concentration of Hydrochloric Acid will notably affect the speed of the chemical reaction mainly due to my knowledge of Collision Theory which will be explained later in the investigation. Planning To decide on the best volume and concentration of hydrochloric acid and best mass of magnesium we first practiced a preliminary experiment. The equation for the reaction is: Magnesium(s) + Hydrochloric Acid(aq) - Magnesium Chloride(aq) + Hydrogen(g) Mg(s) + 2HCL(aq) = MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) We experimented first with different molarity of the Hydrochloric acid, the length of the magnesium ribbon strip etc. This will be explained more in the description of the Preliminary work. The reason we carried out a pilot experiment beforehand was to ensure reliability and accuracy for the final results. This will in turn provide a reliable conclusion for the original question to prove that a change in concentration of an acid solution does affect the rate of the chemical reaction between the chosen chemicals; Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium Ribbon. Preliminary Work As explained earlier, during the Preliminary we widely varied the reactions between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid changing factors such as the apparatus used, the amount of Magnesium ribbon, the time measured and the surface area of the Magnesium i.e. ...read more.

Middle

8. Repeat from steps 2-7 but with the next concentration of acid and wash out the equipment. To make the correct concentrations of the dilute acid we had to mix the Hydrochloric Acid with water in certain ratios. For 1 Molar solution we did not need to mix water with the 1M acid. For 1.2 Molar, we had to mix the solution as 60cm� 2 Molar HCL with 40cm� water. For 1.4 Molar, we mixed the solution as 70cm� Acid and 30cm� water. We carried on removing 10cm� of water and adding 10cm� of Hydrochloric Acid to test each time as 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 and 1.8 Molar of 100cm� Dilute HCl. Analysing Evidence Below are the final results we gathered which shows two sets, as we repeated the experiment twice. Final Results with 100ml of Solution and 3cm of Magnesium Ribbon - Set 1 Time (Seconds) Molar (Hydrochloric Acid) 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 2 11 18 24 31 36 1.2 5 18 29 37 46 53 1.4 10 25 40 44 49 58 1.6 19 37 42 47 56 60 1.8 39 49 56 57 59 69 Set 2 Time (Seconds) Molar (Hydrochloric Acid) 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 4 12 16 19 29 35 1.2 5 15 28 34 39 39 45 1.4 13 22 43 38 47 56 59 1.6 23 37 48 54 57 60 1.8 35 49 53 56 58 60 The numbers shown in red are outliers which we amended by retaking select parts of the experiment. Averages Time (Seconds) Molar (Hydrochloric Acid) 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 3 11.5 17 21.5 30 35.5 1.2 5 16.5 28.5 35.5 42.5 49 1.4 11.5 23.5 39 45.5 52.5 58.5 ...read more.

Conclusion

We found that the Measuring Cylinder still worked the best as there was no way of getting an incorrect water level at the beginning of the experiment and there is more supply of Measuring Cylinders. A third factor could be that we should have set a longer time to record the data; this will have helped to give us more information for the weaker concentrations of Hydrochloric Acid. The problem we faced was that at 60 seconds where we stopped recording the information, there was still alot of the Magnesium still left to react. We could have tried in the Preliminary to record for about 70 or 80 seconds to see whether it will have been worth including the extra time in our experiment but no longer than 90 seconds as the Magnesium will have dissolved too early. Overall I think this investigation was a success in proving that the higher the acid concentration, the faster the chemical reaction will take place. Despite the anomalous results that we encountered it is fair to say our results are reliable enough to come to an accurate conclusion. If the factors I have mentioned that needed changing were taken into consideration for the experiment and were put into practice it would be even greater of an extremely accurate and reliable investigation. Our experiment showed us first hand that acid concentration does significantly change the speed of the reaction and it supports my prediction. So I am extremely confident that I have collected relevant and accurate information which proves the Hypothesis and it is completely backed up by the experiment. By Guy Collishaw ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

This is a well written laboratory report. The data collected is reliable and the evaluation covers all the relevant aspects necessary to achieve a good result. The lack of scientific theory does limit the investigation but that can easily be corrected. There are improvements suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 18/04/2013

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