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Reactions between HCL and Marble chips.

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Introduction

Reactions between HCL and Marble chips Reactions between HCL and Marble chips Planning I have decided to investigate the effect of different concentrations of hydrochloric acid on marble chips. I want to see how long it takes for 30cm of carbon dioxide to be given off once the acid and marble chips start reacting. I carried out a preliminary experiment to see what sort of time ranges I was going to expect because I wanted to get the concentration levels right otherwise I could have been waiting for a long time. I didn't have that sort of time in the laboratory to wait around. In this investigation I will be using the following apparatus, one conical flask to put the marble chips in and also to put the acid in so they react. One bung to seal the top of the conical flask. A piece of delivery tube, this carries the gas to the measuring cylinder. Two measuring cylinders, one to measure the amount of acid and water to make my acid concentrations, and the other which is slightly bigger to collect the gas during the reaction so I know when the amount I desire has been collected. One clamp and clamp stand to keep the measuring cylinder steady when it is collecting the gas. ...read more.

Middle

The reason I think that the rate of reaction will increase is that the experiment is exothermic, this means that it will give itself more energy and therefore more collisions and faster collisions. Therefore I predict that the rate of reaction will increase with the concentration of the HCl solutions. Obtaining Evidence Concentration (Acid and Water) Time Taken (In seconds) 50 cm3 and 0 cm3 61 40 cm3 and 10 cm3 85 30 cm3 and 20 cm3 127 20 cm3 and 30 cm3 200 10 cm3 and 40 cm3 618 Analysing Evidence and Conclusions From looking at my results and graph I am able to conclude that the more concentrated the acid the quicker the reaction happened. There was a dramatic change in the amount of seconds it took to collect the gas as more water was added to the solutions. For example, if you look at the graph it shows how much longer it takes for the gas to be collected in the second half of the concentrations than the first half; this is shown by the black dotted lines. I find this hard to explain. As I look at my results, the more diluted the solution is the longer it takes for the gas to collect. ...read more.

Conclusion

This added time onto the true time taken. This means my results are higher than they should be. The truth of my conclusion is not undermined by this however, as the same effect happened to each test. I could overcome this problem and the one mentioned in the previous paragraph by only starting the timer when the gas starts to fill the measuring cylinder. This would not include the time taken to push the water down the delivery tube in my results, and I would not have to start the stopwatch at the same time as putting the marble chips in the flask. To provide more evidence for my investigation I could use a thermometer to measure the temperature during the experiment, this would show whether my theory of the lower concentration not heating up the reactants is true or not. For further investigation I could use stronger acid to see if there is limit to how quickly the reaction can take place. Also, I could measure the mass loss of the reaction by having the conical flask on a top pan balance. I could take away the mass at regular intervals from the original and find out how quickly the reaction takes place. To be sure I can rely on my results I will repeat he experiment twice or three times if necessary, because there is chance of inaccurate results for many reasons. I will use acid of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 molar concentrations. ...read more.

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