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Reactions of period 3 elements with Oxygen, water and chlorine.

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Introduction

Reactions of period 3 elements with Oxygen, water and chlorine: Reactions with oxygen: Na tarnishes in air; burns with a yellow flame ou heating to give a mixture of the oxide and peroxide, a yellowish-white solid. 4Na(s) + O2(g) --> 2Na20(s) and 2Na(s) --> O2(g) --> Na2O2(s) Mg Superficial oxidation at room temperature: burns with brilliant white flame on heating. Oxide white 2Mg(S) + O2(g) --> 2MgO(s) Al Superfacial oxide layer forms at room temperature, which protects against further attack except by concentrated alkali, and enables the use of this relatively reactive metal for engineering purposes, Burns on heating in oxygen to give white, ionic oxide 4Al(s) + 3O2(g) --> 2Al2O3 (s) Si No reaction at room temperature. Burns on heating in oxygen to give white, giant covalent oxide. Si(s) + O2(g) --> SiO2(s) P White phosphorus catches fire spontaneously in air: red phosphorus burns on heating, to give the white, covalent oxide of phosphorus (+5). ...read more.

Middle

ions from disproportionation. Cl2(S) + H2O(l) HOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) Dot and cross diagram of aluminium chloride dimmer Al2Cl6: Oxide of period 3: Na Mg AI Si P S Cl Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO2 SO3 Cl2O ionic giant covalent molecular covalent basic amphoteric acidic Chlorides of period 3: Na Mg Al Si P S Cl NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 SiCl4 PCl3 PCl5 S2Cl2 Cl2 ionic covalent molecular covalent The formulas and bonding of the chlorides of period 3 elements are shown in the above table. The increase in metallic character in group 4: The chemistry of the elements in Group 4 changes from that of a non-metal it carbon to that of a metal in lead. Metallic character, chemically speaking, involves � the formation of positive ions � the formation of predominantly ionic chlorides which do not hydrolyse significantly when placed in water � the formation of ionic oxides which are basic or amphoteric. ...read more.

Conclusion

Properties of group 4 chlorides: Element Chloride Nature Chloride Nature Carbon n/a n/a CCl2 Unreactive below 1000oC Silicon n/a n/a SiCl2 Liquid, hydrolyses (covalent) Germanium GeCl2 Ionic, Hydrolyses GeCl2 Liquid, hydrolyses (covalent) Tin SnCl2 Ionic, Hydrolyses SnCl2 Liquid, hydrolyses (covalent) Lead PbCl2 Ionic, Hydrolyses PbCl2 Liquid, unstable above 0oC, hydrolyses (covalent) Ionice compounds are favoured if the ionisation energies of the cation (endothermic) and the electron affinities of the anion (which overall may be exo- or or endothermic) are compensated by the exothermic lattice enthalpy of the resulting compound. Oxidation states in group 4: Bond lengths and strengths between group 4 elements: Bond Bond length/pm Bond strength/kJ mol-1 C-Cl 177 246 Si-Cl 222 407 Sn-Cl 220 352 Pb-Cl 253 252 Chlorine atoms around a carbon are quite bulky, and prevent access of the attacking hydroxide ion to the carbon atom. This is called steric hindrance. The chlorine atoms are so bulky that they repel one another in CCl4 (terachloromethance) and this is the reason why the C-Cl in weaker than the Si-Cl bond in SiCl4 Toby Elliott Periodic table II 09/05/2007 6 ...read more.

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