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Introduction

Jason Choi

RNR-Infrared investigation

Introduction

Nowadays infrared has many useful applications for example, in the astronomy, discover more information about the universe. Medical infrared imaging is a very useful to check the human body. Infrared cameras are used for police and security work as well as in fire fighting and in the military. Infrared imaging is also used to detect heat loss in buildings and in testing electronic systems. Infrared satellites have been used to detect the Earth's weather, and to study geology and ocean temperatures.

What is infrared?

Fig 1 These glass prism were used by William Herschel in the investigationimage00.jpg

Infrared was discover by William Herschel in the 1800. He used a glass prism to refract sun light and measure the temperature of different colour in the visible light spectrum, then he find that red colour has the higest temperature and violet colour has the lowest temperature. After he found the pattern of temperature He did another experiment to measure the temperature of the infrared region he found it had a very high temperature. Infrared rays is a type of electromagnetic wave it is also a radiation, we can not see it with our eyes but we can feel it through our skin which is heat. infrared radiation is generate when charged particles in the objects are heat up and start moving around, then infrared is emit from the objects surface. There is a positive proportional relationship between the temperature and the amount of infrared radiation. As the temperature increase there will be more infrared emit.      Fig 2image01.jpg

 The electromagnetic spectrum show the Infrared radiation is between the visible and microwave in the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared waves have wavelengths just longer than visible light and just shorter than microwaves.

Type of infrared

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Middle

electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths that emmit from a black body at different level of temperature. It is using the same theory of phanck’s  law, but more compilcated by using the frequency or wavelength of a radiation times the photon energy times the Bose-Einstein distribution function.

Explain Einstein-Bose distribution function

image24.png

Fig10

The distribution function is the probability that a particle is in energy state E. The distribution function create the ideas of discrete probability to the case where energy level of the particle are randomly.

  • At thermal equilibrium, the distribution of particles among the available energy states will take the most probable distribution consistent with the total available energy and total number of particles.
  • Every specific state of the system has equal probability.
  • There is no restriction on the number of particles which can occupy a given state. (fig10)

 These three rules suggest every particle have probability to gain or lose energy, in different state like gas, liquid and solid. The probability also depends on the amount of particles. That’s why to calculate the average radiation energy need to time the Einstein-Bose distribution function.


Types of detectors in infrared camera

A radiation detector is a device that produces an output signal, which depends on the amount of radiation hitting to the detector, thermographic camera’s detector are divide into two types: cooled infrared detectors(photon) and uncooled infrared(thermal)

Uncooled infrared detectors

uncooled thermal cameras use a sensor operating at a variable temperature. Modern uncooled detectors convert incident radiation into heat, by raising the temperature of the detector element. This change in temperature is converted to an electrical signal. It is also can be respond to a wide range of wavelengths. Uncooled infrared detectors display high sensitivity at room temperature.

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Conclusion

(astronomy) http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/252/black_body_radiation.htm

These information help me to found pictures of star, galaxy and comet. Also help me to understand how useful infrared is in the astronomy by discover new star and information before star form. On the other it also help me to define different type of infrared to use in sensing different properties satrs

(AKARI satellite) http://astrof.open.ac.uk

These information had help me to write the further information of infrared use in astronomy it is one of the biggest mission in the 21 century it has many task to complete in the space also helped me to understand different part of the satellite and the basic structure of it also the type of sensor it uses.  


Sources of diagram and graphs

Fig 1 http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-line/treasure/objects/1876-565.asp

Fig2 http:// ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/cosmic_reference/emspec.html

Fig3 http://www.gemini.edu/public/public.html

Fig4 http://www.electrophysics.com/View/Viw_News.asp

Fig5 physics today p.23

Fig6 http://jpoling.cosam.calpoly.edu/astronomy

Fig7 http://jpoling.cosam.calpoly.edu/astronomy_images/cosmic_collisions_slide_show?N=A

Fig8 and 9 http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/252/black_body_radiation.html

Fig10 http://www.pauck.de/marco/photo/infrared/infrared.html

Fig 11 http://www.irassociates.com/stirling.htm

Fig 12 http://hk.search.yahoo.com/search/images?p=infrared&fr=sfp&x=wrt&ei=BIG5

Fig 13 http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-line/treasure/objects/1876-565.asp

Fig 14-20 http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMT4ES1VED_exploring_1.html

Fig 21-27 http://www.jaxa.jp/press/2005/03/20050330_sac_astro-f_j.html


Content page

Introduction

What is infrared?

electromagnetic spectrum relate to energy

Type of infrared                                                                                        

Application

Thermographic camera expaination                                                                        

Inside the cameraUsing Thermographic camera on human or objectWhat is Black body?Planck Radiation FormulaTypes of detectors in infrared camera

Infrared in astronomy

Further information of infrared in astronomy AKARI satellite               Inside the satlelite (structure)

Summary

Bibliography

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