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Resistance Investigation

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Introduction

Philip Nacmanson 10/O RESISTANCE INVESTAGATION COURSEWORK AIM My aim was to investigate the factors that affect the resistance of a piece of wire. The following factors could be investigated: * Length * Width * Material (Nachrome, Copper etc) * Temperature THEORY An electrical current is made due to a flow of electrons passing through the conductor. The faster the flow, the higher the current and hence the lower the resistance. As the electrons move from one end to the other, they collide slowing them down. This reduces the speed in which the electrons reach the other end (reduces the current) and therefore reduces the resistance. PREDICTION Collisions are more likely in the longer piece because there are far more electrons in the longer piece to collide into. Electrons will therefore travel far more slowly in the longer piece. Resistance will be higher in the longer piece because the electrons would collide and travel more slowly. ...read more.

Middle

wear Goggles * I won't touch the equipment unless the current is turned off * I will use a low voltage (2V DC) * I will do the experiment well away from water Results Table Length of wire (cm) Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance (?) 40 1.346 1.198 1.338 0.28 0.27 0.27 4.81 4.44 4.75 60 1.360 1.320 1.410 0.19 0.19 0.20 7.16 6.94 7.05 80 1.415 1.384 1.435 0.15 0.15 0.15 9.43 9.23 9.57 100 1.450 1.415 1.479 0.12 0.12 0.12 12.08 11.79 12.27 120 1.474 1.350 1.484 0.10 0.09 0.10 14.74 15.00 14.84 140 1.475 1.390 1.480 0.08 0.08 0.08 18.44 17.37 18.44 160 1.480 1.393 1.450 0.07 0.07 0.07 21.14 19.90 20.71 Averages 40 1.294 0.27 4.7 60 1.363 0.19 7.1 80 1.411 0.15 9.4 100 1.450 0.12 12.0 120 1.436 0.10 14.9 140 1.448 0.08 18.1 160 1.441 0.07 20.5 Conclusion I concluded that as the wire gets longer the resistance gets bigger. ...read more.

Conclusion

With all the variables I could fit the results of different metals on my graph. The variables could be tested with length to show even greater comparison. You don't have to do length for example you could have temperature in Celsius on the X-axis and have any number of lines, one for each material showing how different materials react at different temperatures. To have a 'real-time' comparison you could set up 2 or more wires stemming from the same power pack. This could give a more accurate reading because temperatures could change, as could voltages from the power pack. From this experiment you could make electricity transportation far more efficient. This experiment could be useful for companies who manufacture electrical products and for the National Grid. To perfect the task of reducing resistance to a minimum would take a lot of time and effort. But if you manage to find the optimum material, length, width and temperature of the conductor, electrical energy could become far more efficient. ...read more.

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