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# Resistance of Wires.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rupinder Chahal                July 2002

10:5

Resistance of Wires

The aim of my investigation is to find whether the length of a wire affects its resistance.

The battery provides the energy that is transferred to the wire; it also provides the force, which drives the charges round the circuit. The size of the current depends on the size of the battery’s voltage, but the circuit itself also affects the size of the current.

The ammeter records the current passing round the circuit. The more voltage that is supplied, the bigger the current that flows in the circuit.

Voltage is not the only factor controlling the size of the current in a circuit. The current also depends on the wires and components through which it passes.

In circuits containing metallic conductors, the only particles that are free to move are electrons. Metals contain positive ions, neutral atoms that have lost one or two of their outermost electrons. These electrons are free to move about in the metal and are affected by electric forces. Any movement of charge is an electric current, but the flow rate depends on more than just the speed of movement.

Each electron in a metal carries a tiny amount of charge, 1.6 X 10-19 coulomb (C).

Middle

Average Current (2d.p.)

Resistance (Ω) (2d.p.)

10

1

0.49

0.50

0.51

0.50

2.00

-

2

0.94

0.94

0.94

0.94

2.12

-

3

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.40

2.14

-

4

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.80

2.22

-

5

2.28

2.25

2.26

2.26

2.21

 Length (cm) Volts Current (A) Current (A) Current (A) Average Current (2d.p.) Resistance (Ω)(2d.p.) 20 1 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 3.57 - 2 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.47 4.26 - 3 0.7 0.71 0.7 0.70 4.29 - 4 0.95 0.95 0.94 0.95 4.21 - 5 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 4.35
 Length (cm) Volts Current (A) Current (A) Current (A) Average Current (2d.p.) Resistance (Ω) (2d.p.) 30 1 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 5.55 - 2 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 6.25 - 3 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 6.12 - 4 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 6.25 - 5 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 6.33
 Length (cm) Volts Current (A) Current

Conclusion

Though, I could investigate how temperature ranges of the wire affect its resistance. This would determine whether a slight change in the wire’s temperature, as little as 0.5 of a degrees Celsius,  would cause a significant change in the current passing through it, and in turn, causing the resistance to be inaccurate and misleading.

In my opinion, the results gathered would be difficult to improve on as they are very accurate, and there is little evidence to prove any results were anomalous.

Even so, if I were to do this experiment again, I would use more accurate ammeters and voltmeters. Also, I would have taken more readings so that an even more accurate average could be achieved, as well as taking a wider range of readings.

Taken as a whole, I feel this investigation has been a very successful one. I feel my results and analysis have been as accurate and reliable as I could make them, especially under the allocated time circumstances. However I feel with extra time, I could have repeated the experiment and made it even more accurate and adapted it to try other variables. These would be things like comparing the resistance of 32SWG Nichrome with different thicknesses, as well as comparing resistance to that of different metallic wire types.

-  -

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