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Respiratory System of a fish

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Introduction

BIOLOGY SAC: PRACTICAL REPORT THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF A FISH PREPARED BY SARANG PALERI INTRODUCTION: The respiratory system is an intricate structure existing in most forms of life, which allows for these organisms to take air into their bodies for cellular respiration to take place inside cells, as the name suggests. Cellular respiration is the oxidation of organic compounds that occurs within cells, producing energy for cellular processes. In humans, glucose is the 'fuel' molecule, which is oxidised by oxygen, producing carbon dioxide, water and energy. The formula is this: C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g) � 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + 36ATP ATP is utilisable energy in the form of a molecule. It is very vital to the human body, as it provides energy to the many functions that our bodies perform in a day. ATP provides energy for muscle contraction on skeletal and heart muscle, and the diaphragm and the muscle in the gut. The muscle is able to move easily because of the body's large ATP supply. ATP also puts in energy to manufacture chemicals, like blood proteins, hormones and enzymes. It provides energy to the excretory system and the digestive system, and to the nervous tissue, so it can efficiently conduct impulses from other neurons, and send neurotransmitters between neurons. ...read more.

Middle

At the same time, carbon dioxide is being diffused out of the blood, into the alveoli and lungs, to be exhaled into the atmosphere. This is how gas exchange occurs in the lungs of the human body. AIM: To compare the structure and functions of the organs of the respiratory system. MATERIALS: * Probe * Scissors * Gloves * Cutting board * Garfish METHOD: 1. km RESULTS: Gills Highly efficient respiratory organs which are the site of gas transfer in a fish. Gas is transferred as the water continuously moves over the gill filaments, Transferring oxygen into the bloodstream inside the filament. Heart Carries the oxygen from the gills around the fish. Nasal Cavity Conditions the air and collects dust in the air with minute hairs. Pharynx Mainly involved in vocalisation and prevention of food going into the lungs. Attached to it is the epiglottis, which closes over the trachea to stop food going in. Larynx Mainly involved with vocalisation again, it closes while swallowing so as to not let food into the lungs. Bronchus Contains smooth muscle. The path which air travels along to reach the alveoli. Alveoli The site of gas exchange in the human body, round spherical ball, 1mm in radius. Lung The main organ of the respiratory system which allows for oxygen to be diffused in the alveoli so each person can ...read more.

Conclusion

Humans' respiratory system is much longer, having to go into a lung, then further until you reach the alveoli. Garfish respiratory cycle is much quicker. Garfish have counter current oxygen supplying them with oxygen, whereas humans need to inhale to receive oxygen. Garfish possess gills, Humans don't possess gills. Animals very different and unlike each other have very different organ systems, especially respiratory. Salamanders have their gas exchange occur across their skin and through the use of lungs, which is useful as they can keep the lungs as storage while they breathe through their skin. Amphibians also breathe through their skins, but they can also breathe through their lungs and gills, which means they can swim and keep air in the lungs for backup, while they breathe in oxygen from the water. Although, amphibians do not breathe the same way as humans through their lungs, as they don't have diaphragms, so they need to 'swallow' the air. Gas exchange occurs with insects as well, between their tissue in air filled tubes. The way air gets into their tissue is through spiracles. They are minute holes which insects can open and close themselves to allow air in sometimes. Gas exchange is rather simple, just diffusing into the bloodstream, but in some environments, gas exchange results in a loss of water vapour, capable of killing an insect quickly in a dry environment. This proves there are way o get rid of annoying insects. ...read more.

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