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Review the structure of the major biological chemicals and describe the properties and structures of the main materials used in sport and exercise.

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Biological Chemicals and Materials During this assignment I am going to review the structure of the major biological chemicals and I will describe the properties and structures of the main materials used in sport and exercise. Nutrition is the process of taking in and assimilating nutrients. A balanced diet is a very important factor in maintaining good nutrition and health, there are seven important components in a balanced diet: * Carbohydrate, these are broken down to glucose to provide fast-release energy. * Fats, these contain lots of energy which can be stored for slow-release energy. * Vitamins, vitamin A (milk, butter and fish) is good for healthy skin and good night vision. Vitamin C (citrus fruits and vegetables) helps to prevent scurvy. Vitamin D (milk, fish, eggs and sunshine) prevents rickets. * Minerals, iron from liver and green vegetables prevent thyroid problems. Calcium from milk and cheese produces strong teeth and bones. * Fibre, fibre is indigestible plant material which gives the gut something to push on, helping to avoid constipation. * Water, as most of the body is water we need to constantly replace that which is lost in urine, sweat and breathing, by taking in fluids. * Protein, provides the 'fabric' for most of the soft tissues. A good protein intake is essential for growth and repair. Its not enough to just make sure you eat all 7 of the components above, you have to eat them in the right proportions. ...read more.


Structure and function of water, is polarisation of the water molecule, hydrogen bonding in water, lubricant, temperature buffer. Water is a method of transport in the blood, lymphatic, excretory and digestive system. Thermal properties- Hydrogen bonding restricts the movement of water molecules. Large amounts of energy are needed to raise the temperature of water. Energy output, e.g. work/sport/thinking require energy, therefore hydration needs to be at the right level. The structure of water is: * Major component of cells * It provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place. * The hydrogen bonding of water molecules makes the molecules difficult to separate. * Large amounts of energy are needed to convert water to gas. * Large amounts of energy must be transferred from water before it is turned into ice. I am now going to talk about the main materials used in sport, which are: * Metals * Ceramics * Polymers * Composites Metals Metals in sport are essential because they are in the equipment that we use in a lot of sport. It is important how the metals are made and the strength of the metal and how the metals are formed and what kind of metals are used. Below is a section that I have produced on metals in golf clubs: Metals are used for a lot of sports especially in golf, they are used in most parts of the clubs. ...read more.


This will be used a lot in smaller sports like martial arts for breaking. There are various implications that may affect a persons decision to buy a piece of sports equipment. 1. The price could be to expensive which could stop the customer from buying because they don't have enough money. 2. The quality of the equipment could be low so the customer will not want to pay the price for that piece of equipment. 3. The availability of the product, because if there are low numbers being made then there will be low numbers being sold which will result in customer dissatisfaction. 4. The marketing of the product, if the product was not marketed well, e.g. not shown on T.V. radio, etc... then the product will not be sold because no one will no about it. The other area we need to consider is clothes and shoes for sport. Most of our sports clothes are made from fibres spun into a yarn or woven and knitted into fabric. There are three types of fibres: Natural: Wool- warm and comfortable, holds its shape and is crease resistant. Cotton- cool and comfortable, creases but hard wearing. Leather- keeps its shape and hard wearing. PVC (polyvinylchloride) is made from coke and lime. It is cold and smooth to the touch and hard wearing. It is useful in making waterproof clothes for many activities. In conclusion I have found out that there are many different sorts and types of materials used in sport, mainly the ones I have mentioned but there are a lot more. ...read more.

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