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Rocks and Metals - Rocks and the Earth

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Introduction

CD3 Rocks and Metals Rocks and the Earth There are 3 main types of rock . These are sedimentary , metamorphic and igneous . Igneous rocks are formed by molten lava escaping from the mantle and cooling down to form solid , crystalline rock. The faster the new rock cools the smaller the crystals in the rock are. Eg Granite Sedimentary rocks are made when small chippings of rock accumulate on the seabed and are crushed together over thousands of years. These chippings are worn from rocks by wind, rain and ice , this is called erosion or weathering. The chippings are carried to the sea by rivers and streams. Eg sandstone Metamorphic rocks are formed when high temperatures or pressures act on sedimentary or igneous rocks changing them. Eg marble The earth is made up of four main layers. The inner and outer cores are in the middle and are made of iron. Outside the core there is a layer of dense liquid rock called magma. ...read more.

Middle

5. Aluminium Al 6. Zinc Zn Zinc + Copper Sulphate Zinc Sulphate + Copper 7. Iron Fe 8. Lead Pb Zn + Cu SO4 ZnSO4 + Cu 9. Copper Cu 10. Silver Ag 11. Gold Au Making Metals from Ores Only the most unreactive metals like silver and gold are found in nature as pure metals. Most metals must be made from rocks which contain compounds of the metal. These special rocks are called ores. Many useful substances can be made from ores such as pottery , cement ,glass and most metals. Less reactive metals such as copper and iron can be made from the minerals in their ores by heating their ores with carbon or carbon monoxide gas. Eg Iron can be made from the mineral Haemetite by heating this with carbon monoxide gas. Iron oxide + Carbon Monoxide Iron + Carbon Dioxide FeO + CO Fe + CO2 Electolysis Reactive metals require a more powerful method to purify them from their ores . ...read more.

Conclusion

The casing is the cathode and liquid aluminium metal is formed there. Atoms , Molecules and Ions All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. These particles have no charge. A substance only made of one type of atom is called an element. When a chemical reaction occurs atoms bond together to make new particles called molecules. A compound is always made up of molecules. Some elements are made up of molecules. C Oxygen Oxygen Carbon dioxide Atom molecule molecule Structure of Atoms An atom is made up of two parts. In the centre there is a small , heavy lump with a positive charge called the nucleus. On the outside small light ,negatively charged particles called electron orbit around the nucleus. Nucleus (+ve) Electrons (-ve) An Atom Oxidation and Reduction When a substance reacts with oxygen this is called oxidation. When a substance has oxygen remove this is called reduction ...read more.

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