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Safety- must always wear safety glasses and we should be very careful not to drop any acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Safety- must always wear safety glasses and we should be very careful not to drop any acid. Fair test- we must make sure that we use the same size, amount and roughly the same mass of magnesium, this is because we want to keep the ribbon roughly the same all the way through the experiment so that it will be a fair test and the results we be in relation to each other, otherwise the results will be completely different to what we will expect and it will ruin the experiment. We must also take our readings at the same intervals throughout the experiment i.e. I will take a reading every fifteen seconds for all of my experiments. I predict that the more concentrated the acid the quicker the reaction will take place, because the more concentrated the acid is then it will make the magnesium react faster and more hydrogen will be given off in a quicker time. Equipment- we will need a boiling tube, Magnesium Ribbon, hydrochloric acid, water, and a stopwatch. Method When doing my experiments I will use the same procedure throughout. Once I have set up the apparatus I will measure out 5cm3 of acid in a measuring tube and then pour it into a boiling tube with 45 cm3 of water. Then I will be ready with the stopwatch and then quickly drop in the ribbon into the acid, and start the stopwatch. This must all be done in a very short space of time. I must record the results in a table and then write it up neat later. The factors, which may affect how well the experiment works, are how quickly the ribbon is placed in and the stopwatch pressed. Although this is a factor it is not really a major factor that will affect the end results, and as long as the time it all takes is kept constant throughout then it should not matter too much. ...read more.

Middle

I did this to see if the experiments with the same strength of acids affected the rate of reaction if there was a change in temperature. I then got a piece of magnesium ribbon about 1 cm long weighing 0.01g and dropped it into the acid and started timing the moment that the magnesium ribbon touched the acid solution. When the magnesium ribbon stopped fizzing, I stopped the clock and recorded the number of seconds (rounded up to nearest second) taken for the reaction from start to finish. I made a table to record my results in. The table is shown below. Experiment Strength of hydrochloric acids in 10 ml No. of Mg ribbon pieces (0.01g) Test 1 secs. Temp Test 2 secs. Temp Test 3 secs. Temp AverageSecs. 1 1.0 molar 1 151.0 18 �c 141.0 18 �c 117.0 18.4�c 136.3 2 1.25 molar 1 81.0 17 �c 76.0 17.5�c 74.0 18 �c 77.0 3 1.50 molar 1 58.0 17.5�c 56.0 18 �c 56.0 18 �c 56.3 4 1.75 molar 1 50.0 18 �c 41.0 18� c 31.0 18 �c 40.7 5 2.0 molar 1 20.0 19 �c 22.0 19 �c 16.0 21 �c 19.3 To calculate the average time that it took for the magnesium to be eaten away by the acid, I did the following calculation: Test 1 + Test 2 + Test 3 = Average time 3 As I already have mentioned, I used a measuring cylinder to make the measurements and used a pipette for further accuracy. I did each experiment three times so I would be able to calculate averages and thereby get more accurate results. I recorded the results in seconds instead of minutes in order to obtain more precise results. I used a stop clock instead of a 24-hour clock so I could look at the milliseconds and round it up to the nearest second, which made the results more exact. ...read more.

Conclusion

A 10OC rise in temperature almost doubles the rate of most reactions. Chemical reactions take place by chance. Particles need to collide with enough velocity so that they react. As the temperature is increased the particles move faster since they have more energy. This means that they are colliding more often and more of the collisions have enough velocity to cause a reaction. Since there are more collisions the chemical reaction takes place faster. The temperature of the reaction - When the temperature is low, the particles in the reaction do not have much energy so collision is unlikely to occur. However on heating, particles take in energy causing them to move faster and collide more often. Because the collisions have more energy they are more likely to be successful in breaking and reforming bonds. Therefore the rate of the reaction will increase. When the temperature increases by 10C, the rate of the reaction roughly doubles. Prediction: I can predict that there will be a positive correlation between the rate of the reaction and the temperature so that as the temperature is increased, the rate of reaction will increase Scientific explanation: For a reaction to occur, not only must particles collide with one and other but they must have enough energy so that original bonds are broken and new bonds formed. The energy needed to break a mole of bonds is known as bond energy. If the collision has insufficient energy no reaction occurs. The more successful collisions, the faster the reaction. Successful collisions depend on particles moving faster to increase the chance of colliding. Increasing the temperature means particles take in more energy causing faster movement and therefore more collisions. Heated particles both collide more often and also these collisions will have more energy so will be more likely to be successful. Conversely, reducing the temperature will decrease the amount of energy, slow down movement and decrease the number of collisions. All reactions need energy to start them off. The activation energy is the minimum energy needed to break enough bonds to start a reaction. ...read more.

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