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Science Biology Revision Notes - Nutrition in plants and the Human heart.

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B3 Nutrition in Plants There are 2 types of Nutrition 1. Autotrophic: simple compounds, which are absorbed and build up into complex substances, which may be oxidized (broken down) to release energy. 2. Heterotrophic: Complex food material is broken down to simple substances during digestion, which may be absorbed or oxidized to release energy. Plants show autotrophic nutrition and the central process in plant nutrition is photosynthesis. Sunlight is absorbed by the pigments known as CHLOROPHYLL, which are contained in chloroplast. The first product of photosynthesis is sugar but this is polymerized into starch, which can be stored. Word equation for photosynthesis: Carbon Dioxide + Water = Simple Sugar + Oxygen. Testing leaves for starch. Take a leaf and dip it into boiling water. Add ethanol after the leaf has been boiled. Boil the leaf and ethanol. Add iodine, if starch is present leaf will turn blue/black. Minerals required by plants 1.Nitrates: This mineral combines with glucose to produce amino acids, which make proteins. ...read more.


5. Water evaporates inside the leaf, and diffuses into the air through the stomata on the underside of the leaf. The Phloem Organic compounds are transported in the phloem. This movement is called translocation. B8 Transport in Humans The Heart: Pumps blood around the body. There are 4 main compartments in the heart. Blood flows into the right atrium through the vena cava. The blood is then pumped into the right ventricle. Tricuspid valves divide the right atrium and right ventricle to prevent backflow of blood. Then the blood flows through the pulmonary artery into the lungs. After the blood as has oxidized it goes through the pulmonary vein and into the left atrium. The blood then flows into the left ventricle and finally exits the heart through the aorta. Artery: Thick, elastic walls so that it does not burst. Small lumen (where the blood flows through) Arteries carry oxygenated blood to the organs. ...read more.


Anaerobic Respiration: This is the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the ABSENCE of oxygen. Some of the energy remains in the end products. A byproduct of anaerobic respiration is Lactic Acid. Lactic acid makes the muscles feel cramped and therefore only allow us to exercise for a short period of time. The lactic acid diffuses into the blood and is then broken down in the liver. You breathe faster after exercise because your liver needs the extra oxygen to break down the lactic acid. This is called paying off your OXYGEN DEBT. The Human Breathing System Trachea-Bronchus-Bronchiole-Alveoli. The Alveoli Alveoli are adapted for gas exchange, some of the features that would suggest this are? -The have a large surface area -The walls of the alveoli ate thin -They are moist (to dissolve oxygen) In Alveolus In Blood High Oxygen Concentration Oxygen Low Concentration Low carbon dioxide concentration Carbon Dioxide high concentration Other Additional Information Protein is a long chain of amino acids Starch is a long chain of glucose molecules ...read more.

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