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Science Coursework Investigation ions

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Section 1 - PLANNING Write a detailed plan of your experiment. Make sure it is a fair test. Draw a diagram of apparatus if you like. Predict what will happen and say why, using scientific background material, which might include information from books, CD-ROMs or the Web. Mark scheme: For 2 marks: Plan a simple, safe experiment. For 4 marks: Plan a fair test, choose equipment, and make a prediction. For 6 marks: Use scientific knowledge to plan, decide what to control and vary. Make a prediction. Decide on a suitable number of measurements. For 8 marks: Use scientific knowledge to plan, trying to be precise and reliable. Make a prediction and justify it. Use information from other sources. List of Equipment: Measuring cylinder Boiling tube Trough Delivery tube Goggles Spatula Gloves (if possible) Boiling tube rack Digital weight measurer To make this experiment a fair test I will have to keep the following factors the same: Same size boiling tubes. Volume of Acid Period of time Amount of metals. Temperature Starting temperature of the acid Surface area of the metals Safety Safety precautions are needed because I am dealing with reactive metals, which can injury. The following things need to be acknowledged to, in order to keep this experiment safe: � Be careful not to knock over the rack with the boiling tubes in � Be careful not ...read more.

Middle

I also predict that Copper will not react with any metal. I know this because copper is lower down in the reactivity series. Info sources * Encarta Encyclopedia * Britannica Encyclopedia * Revision guide * Nottingham bluecoat school website Section 2 - OBTAINING EVIDENCE Carry out the experiment. Put your results in a properly labeled table. Repeating experiments gives you more marks. Take averages (means) where this is appropriate. Mark scheme: For 4 marks: Make enough measurements and record them. For 6 marks: Make accurate observations, repeat them and record them clearly. For 8 marks: Use equipment with precision. Record a sensible number of reliable measurements. Metals Time (min) Hydrogen Produced (cm3) Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 1 1 0 2 2 2 1 5 3 2.5 2 7 4 3 3 9 (Zn) 5 4 4 10 1 1 2 7 2 2.5 4 10 3 3 5 12 4 5 7 14 (Fe) 5 5.5 8.5 18 1 6.1 5.2 6 2 9.3 8.6 6.3 3 11 10.1 6.7 4 Out of time 10.5 6.9 (Mg) 5 Out of time 10.8 7 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 (Cu) 5 1 0 0 In obtaining evidence accuracy is everything and to this the following step were taken: Set balance to zero, (use the Tare or T button) ...read more.

Conclusion

Temperature of the acid If the starting temperature of the acid is different each time the speed at which the acid particles collide with the metals will increase more the higher the temperature goes. This means the acid particles move with more energy, which means they will collide with the magnesium with more energy, which will give more successful collisions per second. Surface area of the metals If the metals had a bigger surface area each time the experiment was done, then the acid particles will have a bigger area to collide with, so more collisions will occur every second and the more collisions per second than the more successful collisions per second. Type of acid used If you changed the type of acid then the rate of reaction would change. Hydrochloric, Sulphuric and Nitric acid all would produce a different rate of reaction, so if I do change the type of acid then all three kinds would produce a different set of results. Key factor The factor that I would most like to improve on is the concentration of the acid. I choose this because several different concentrations can be made up before the experiment and they will able me to be more accurate. There will be several different concentrations of acid, which will give me a wide range of results, which will be reliable and reproducible. Ahmad Khan (10F) ...read more.

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