• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Science Research Project - Organ Transplants

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

B3 Transplants Question 1 Since 1950, there had been many attempts to successfully transplant organs and tissues, only a few of these transplants are successful, here is the list of the successful transplants since 1950: 1954: First successful kidney transplant 1966: First successful pancreas transplant 1967: First successful liver transplant 1967: First successful heart transplant 1981: First successful heart/lung transplant 1983: First successful lung lobe transplant 1984: First successful double organ transplant 1986: First successful double-lung transplant 1995: First successful laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy 1997: First successful allogeneic vascularized transplantation of a fresh and perfused human knee joint 1998: First successful live-donor partial pancreas transplant 1998: First successful hand transplant 1999: First successful Tissue Engineered Bladder 2005: First successful partial face transplant 2006: First jaw transplant to combine donor jaw with bone marrow from the patient. 2008: First successful complete full double arm transplant 2008: First baby born from transplanted ovary. 2008: First transplant of a human windpipe using a patient's own stem cells. 2008: First successful transplantation of near total area (80%) of face, (including palate, nose, cheeks, and eyelid) 2010: First full facial transplant, 2011: First double leg transplant. ...read more.

Middle

Science and technology may help overcome problems such as these because of the research being done into the possibility of Xenotransplant, this is when an organ is transplanted from one particular species to another. Many scientists believe that pigs would be the best use for this purpose, as some of their organs are similar in size and we already use heart valves successfully for replacing those damaged in humans. Advantages of using animals as organ donors for humans Once medical xenotransplantation will become available, the demand and the supply for organs will be equivalent and therefore it will be possible to offer transplantation to all the patients on the waiting list. Many of the patients in different countries wait years for an organ, by using animals as organ donors for humans, all of the transplantation can be performed without any delay and therefore death on the waiting list will be avoided. Another advantage of using animals as organ for donors is that many diseases and viruses that affect humans but not animals can be stopped. Animal donors can be genetically engineered to fight selected diseases and therefore make the human body immune to those diseases. ...read more.

Conclusion

However the human immune system will attack any pig tissue. http://www.uktransplant.org.uk The disadvantages of using animal's organ donor for humans is that there's a small possibility of primates diseases with the transplant to the human which could seriously harm the patient and could even cause a large epidemic. Some religions such as Islam do not accept humans to have a pig's organ because it's seen as dirty and unclean. Many people believe that animals too have rights, just like humans, and therefore have the right to live without fear of murder and not be killed off for the purpose of helping humans by providing organs for transplants and therefore we should not exploit the animals for our benefit. http://www.pbs.org In my opinion I think xenotransplantation is an excellent idea. We have yet to know what affect this will have on the environment and future generations. On the other hand if you use a animals organ it easily makes up for the shortage of organ donors, it will cut people off the waiting list. We also understand about animal biology so we can use them, it is also easier to get a match. We eat animals such as sheep cow etc so there should be no objection to why we should not use animal's organ for transplant. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology Revision notes - Human Biology

    5 star(s)

    If the pancreas doesn't make enough insulin it causes a disease called diabetes. There are 2 types of diabetes. People with diabetes regularly test their blood to check their glucose levels. Diabetes sufferers can also control their high blood sugar level by exercising.

  2. Should the cloning of humans be allowed?

    Likewise, female animals are put in more danger as their eggs are surgically removed from them. Though they are put under anaesthesia, they still experience some pain.1 In relation to human cloning, if it ever became possible, something similar to this may occur because lots of eggs would need to

  1. Free essay

    biology transplants

    composition of the blood. Healthy kidneys from either living donors (usually blood relatives) or from recently deceased donors may be used for a transplant. With the use of drugs to prevent rejection of the organ, between 80 and 90% of transplanted kidneys are functioning two years after the surgery.

  2. Stem Cell Research

    It is clear that the use of embryonic stem cells in treatments and for research have some benefits over adult stem cells. However, the research of embryonic cells has been severely restricted. Many people in society protest against the research of embryonic stem cells, as they believe that it is

  1. Factors Affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Even after menopause, when women's death rate from heart disease increases, it's not as great as men's until both groups reach the 80s. * Heredity (including Race) - Children of parents with heart disease are more likely to develop it themselves.

  2. Does cloning benefit or endanger society?

    have an effect on the productivity of that livestock if the disease was to come about. Much of the livestock could die. On the other hand, if there is another livestock with 30 goats, 27 of which are clones of the goat which is resistant to the disease, it wouldn't

  1. Daphnia project.

    So basically reaction rates can double or triple every ten degrees of temperature. Therefore if a Daphnia's heart rate is 50 beats per minute (bpm) in water that is 20 degrees centigrade, its heart rate will double to 100 bpm if the water temperature is raised to 30 degrees centigrade.

  2. B5H Biology Assessment - organ transplants

    A pump increases and decreases the pressure . When the pressure is raised , the air is pushed out the lungs . When the pressure is lowered , the air flows into the lungs. A artificial kidney has not be designed that works outside the body , so a dialysis machine is used for people who kidneys have stopped working.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work