• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Science Research Project - Organ Transplants

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

B3 Transplants Question 1 Since 1950, there had been many attempts to successfully transplant organs and tissues, only a few of these transplants are successful, here is the list of the successful transplants since 1950: 1954: First successful kidney transplant 1966: First successful pancreas transplant 1967: First successful liver transplant 1967: First successful heart transplant 1981: First successful heart/lung transplant 1983: First successful lung lobe transplant 1984: First successful double organ transplant 1986: First successful double-lung transplant 1995: First successful laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy 1997: First successful allogeneic vascularized transplantation of a fresh and perfused human knee joint 1998: First successful live-donor partial pancreas transplant 1998: First successful hand transplant 1999: First successful Tissue Engineered Bladder 2005: First successful partial face transplant 2006: First jaw transplant to combine donor jaw with bone marrow from the patient. 2008: First successful complete full double arm transplant 2008: First baby born from transplanted ovary. 2008: First transplant of a human windpipe using a patient's own stem cells. 2008: First successful transplantation of near total area (80%) of face, (including palate, nose, cheeks, and eyelid) 2010: First full facial transplant, 2011: First double leg transplant. ...read more.

Middle

Science and technology may help overcome problems such as these because of the research being done into the possibility of Xenotransplant, this is when an organ is transplanted from one particular species to another. Many scientists believe that pigs would be the best use for this purpose, as some of their organs are similar in size and we already use heart valves successfully for replacing those damaged in humans. Advantages of using animals as organ donors for humans Once medical xenotransplantation will become available, the demand and the supply for organs will be equivalent and therefore it will be possible to offer transplantation to all the patients on the waiting list. Many of the patients in different countries wait years for an organ, by using animals as organ donors for humans, all of the transplantation can be performed without any delay and therefore death on the waiting list will be avoided. Another advantage of using animals as organ for donors is that many diseases and viruses that affect humans but not animals can be stopped. Animal donors can be genetically engineered to fight selected diseases and therefore make the human body immune to those diseases. ...read more.

Conclusion

However the human immune system will attack any pig tissue. http://www.uktransplant.org.uk The disadvantages of using animal's organ donor for humans is that there's a small possibility of primates diseases with the transplant to the human which could seriously harm the patient and could even cause a large epidemic. Some religions such as Islam do not accept humans to have a pig's organ because it's seen as dirty and unclean. Many people believe that animals too have rights, just like humans, and therefore have the right to live without fear of murder and not be killed off for the purpose of helping humans by providing organs for transplants and therefore we should not exploit the animals for our benefit. http://www.pbs.org In my opinion I think xenotransplantation is an excellent idea. We have yet to know what affect this will have on the environment and future generations. On the other hand if you use a animals organ it easily makes up for the shortage of organ donors, it will cut people off the waiting list. We also understand about animal biology so we can use them, it is also easier to get a match. We eat animals such as sheep cow etc so there should be no objection to why we should not use animal's organ for transplant. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology Revision notes - Human Biology

    5 star(s)

    * Blood glucose - (4-7) * Oxygen levels * Water levels * Salt levels * Carbon dioxide levels Enzymes are biological catalysts which control every reaction that occurs inside our cells. Without enzymes (which wouldn't function if they were affected by e.g.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Advantages and Disadvatages of Designer Babies

    3 star(s)

    The child will not feel as if it was an outcast. For instance if we look at the movie my sisters keeper which features actress Cameron Diaz it is a story about a girl with leukaemia. Her parents, through PGD and IVF, conceive yet another girl so that she may be a bone marrow donor for her older sibling.

  1. Heart Transplant Essay

    * Should a person in whom a transplant has failed be given a second organ, or should a different person have a first chance? * Should individuals who have abused their bodies through smoking, drinking, or diet receive new organs, or should organs only be given to those whose organs were damaged by illness?

  2. Factors Affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease.

    * High blood cholesterol - As blood cholesterol rises, so does risk of coronary heart disease. When other risk factors (such as high blood pressure and tobacco smoke) are present, this risk increases even more. A person's cholesterol level is also affected by age, sex, heredity and diet.

  1. Stem Cell Research

    This difficulty arises due to the relatively low amount of adult stem cells in living tissue. In adult bone marrow, there is only approximately 1 adult stem cell in every 1000 cells21. An economic implication of this difficulty in culturing would be that more money would be invested to develop

  2. Free essay

    biology transplants

    composition of the blood. Healthy kidneys from either living donors (usually blood relatives) or from recently deceased donors may be used for a transplant. With the use of drugs to prevent rejection of the organ, between 80 and 90% of transplanted kidneys are functioning two years after the surgery.

  1. Should the cloning of humans be allowed?

    Infertility and Premature Death One of these benefits would be to infertile couples currently using in vitro fertilisation. At the moment, these couples have to retrieve donor sperms as well as donor eggs. Human cloning would allow these infertile couples to have children who were biologically related to one parent.

  2. Biology 1 Edexcel Science Overview Revision Notes.

    Genetic disorders A change in a gene?s DNA is called a mutation As genes carry instructions for building a protein, a mutation may alter a type of protein or cause no protein to be made at all. If sperm and eggs carry a mutation, then any offspring will inherit the mutated gene.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work