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Science Research Task- Francium

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Introduction

FRANCIUM Francium is classified as an "Alkali Metal" and located in Group 1 elements of the Periodic Table. Francium has an atomic number of 87 and its atomic mass is 223. Elements classified as Alkali Metal are very reactive and does not occur freely in nature. Francium was discovered by Marguerite Perey in 1939. There are many reasons why it took scientists nearly 80 years to discover francium [1]. One is that, francium is extremely rare. An ounce exists at any given time throughout the earth's crust, so it is very hard to find francium on the earth's crust [2]. Another reason is that, Francium is obtained from the decay of actinium and can be found in trace amounts in uranium and thorium minerals, which makes it very radioactive and also as francium is very reactive and unstable, it will always try to become stable by decaying therefore it is very hard to handle [1]. The technology and equipment required to handle such radioactive and unstable element was not present until the 20th century, so that can be another reason for the late discovery of francium. ...read more.

Middle

Word equation for the reaction of alkali metal with water is: Alkali Metal + Water " Metallic Hydroxide + Hydrogen The symbolic equation for the reaction of sodium with water is: 2Na + 2H2O = 2NaOH + H2 The symbolic equation for the reaction of Potassium with water is: 2K + 2H2O = 2KOH+ H2 As we know that, as we move down the group reactivity increases, so I predict that francium would be more reactive and more violent than the other alkali metals. There would be a percussive reaction with a loud bang and instant vaporization of water, producing a lot of steam, plus burning hydrogen, since hydrogen is also a product. [4] You would also see whatever the characteristic colour of burning Francium would be. In alkali metals, as you go down the group the melting point decreases while the atomic radius increases. This is because the increase in atomic radius means that there is more space between the nucleus and the electron in the outer shell, the more space means that there is less force of attraction between the nucleus and the electrons further away from the nucleus. ...read more.

Conclusion

This new energy level is still a circle. If this electron get even more energy, it moves up to another energy level, but when this electron loses energy, it moves down to a smaller energy level. So the Bohr model looks like a point (that represents the nucleus) with circles (energy shells/level) around it, each circle that is surrounded by another. The Bohr can be used to explain the reactivity of alkali metals because the higher energy shell that the outer electron is situated in, the less forces are acting upon it from the nucleus (because the outer electron is further away as it moves up energy shells, so there are less forces attracting it to the nucleus). As there is only one electron is present in the outer shell, in alkali metals, it is easily removed to become stable. Their reactivity increases as you go down the group as the electron you lose is further from the positive nucleus attracting it, which is also shielded by the electrons in between.[7] This makes it easier for the outer electron to be lost. REFRENCE 1. http://www.facts-about.org.uk/science-element-francium.htm 2. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francium 3. http://www.docbrown.info/page03/Alkali_Metals.htm 4. http://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090213032702AAYDj80 5. http://www.blurtit.com/q591895.html 6. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_Bohr_model_of_the_atom 7. http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081012010231AAoe12T 8. http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/fr.html ...read more.

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