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Science revision notes on heat and radiation.

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How heat is transferred though the glass Wall of a boiling tube?

  • particle vibrate more
  • energy transferred by collisions with other particles

Which radiation is the most strongly ionising?

  • alpha

What effect does nuclear radiation have on living cells?

  • damage them/ destroys

What is meant by the term half-life?

  • time taken for number of nuclei to halve

Why can we assume that radio waves travel through air at the same speed as light?

  • all electromagnetic waves travels at the same speed through a vacuum.

What is an analogue signal?

  • a signal that varies continually

What is gamma radiation?

  • electromagnetic wave/radiation

Why are step-up transformers used?

  • increase voltage, increase efficiency, reduce current, reduce energy loss

Environmental problem that burning fossil fuels produces?

  • produces pollutant gases, solid waste/ash/smoke

...read more.


  • air particles gain energy, air particles move faster, air expands, warm air raises.

One harmful effect that UV radiation has on skin?

  • skin cancer

What is meant by an energy source being renewable?

  • replaced faster than it is used

Renewable energy sources used to generate electricity?

  • wind, tides, waves, fall of water, biomass, geothermal.

What happens to the wasted energy?

  • transferred to surroundings

What is a beta particle and from which part of an atom is a beta particle emitted?

  • electron… from the nucleus

What is meant by isotopes?

  • element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

What is meant by radioactive?

  • substance that give out radiation.

What is an alpha particle?

  • a helium nucleus

Why Plutonium-238 is unlikely to cause any harm if it

...read more.


Give a reason;because no light pollution/ light is not scattered by the atmosphere

Advantage of sending information as a digital signal rather than as an analogue signal?

  • better quality signal/ can be easily processed by computer.

Other use o microwaves?

  • satellite communication/ cooking

What is the name of the process by which a nuclear fuel produces heat?

  • (nuclear) fission

Explain how the heat released from a nuclear fuel is used to generate electricity in power stations?

  • water heated to produce (high pressure) stem, steams turns turbine which drives generator

Why is the waste from a nuclear power station dangerous?

  • it can be radioactive

Why outside surface of the fridge is white and shiny?

  • poor absorb of heat/ radiation, reflect heat/ radiation away from fridge-freer.

Explain how the gold-198 is used to find where the pollution is coming from?

  • put sources into water at one point on bank, see if radiation is detected in polluted area.

...read more.

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