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scince case study: cloning

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Introduction

Should cloning be allowed? By Theo Grace Contents Page- 1. Title page- should cloning be allowed? 2. Contents page 3-4. Introduction 5. How it works 6. Evaluating human cloning/cloning endangered species? 7. Plant cloning 8. Animal cloning 9. Who and why to clone? 10. Just because we can, does it mean we should? 11. The human clone (if it was achieved) 12. Conclusion/Evaluation 13. Bibliography Introduction In this investigation I am going to explore the different aspects of scientific cloning, how it came to be, and why it may be necessary in the modern age. There are several theory's as to why cloning may be important now, and in the years to come. First of all there is a food shortage in our world. This is due to the high demand on food as the worlds population increases (population expected to rise from 6.5bn to 9bn in the next 10 years) this indicates that food is going to be a vital aspect in preventing world hunger. In the present day almost 1 billion people go with a minimal amount of food everyday and approximately 400,000 die everyday due to starvation. There are other factors such as over-fishing and extinction of species that have to be taken into account, but overall the human race is to blame. Simple cloning procedures such as the cloning of crops and fish may slow down the crisis that we are facing. Other uses of cloning are organ-cloning used for medical transplants and cosmetic cloning which may be for a commercial use. The term cloning means to create an exact replica of something else and derived from the Greek term ???? ...read more.

Middle

of new beneficial characteristics arising by chance All new plants inherit the same desirable characteristics No variation means there is a danger of reducing the gene pool Cloning of plants has many important commercial implications. Successful varieties of plants can be produced commercially on a massive scale in a relatively short space of time, enabling scientists to develop: * fast growing crops that give more than one harvest in a year, or * Crops with better disease-resistant qualities. Animal cloning Like plants some animals can be cloned naturally. The unspecialized eggs of some animals such as worms and some types of fish, frogs and lizards can grow into fully formed adults under the right conditions. The offspring are clones of the female who laid the eggs. Another example of natural animal cloning is identical twins. Even though they are genetically different to their parents, they are naturally occurring clones of each other. Artificial cloning of animals is now commonplace in laboratories. The most famous example of animal cloning is Dolly the Sheep, born in the UK in 1997 using a technique called cell transferring. This is the method: 1. An egg cell was removed from the ovary of an adult female sheep, and the nucleus removed. 2. Using micro-surgical techniques, the empty egg cell was fused with DNA extracted from an udder cell of a donor sheep 3. The fused cell now began to develop normally, using the donated DNA. 4. Before the dividing cells became specialised the embryo was implanted into the uterus of a foster-mother sheep. The result was Dolly, genetically identical to the donor sheep. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also there is the matter of the law and the possibility of a black market of human cloning which would be highly illegal and could be disastrous for society. We need to think about the advantages and disadvantages of human cloning and the economical and ethical cost. Alternatively the cloning of animals such as fish, pigs and cattle may be vital to combat world hunger or if any animal holds the cure to a certain disease it could be mass produced although we would have to look at the factors of if it would be cruel to harvest and manufacture animals for there resources. Overall I think that therapeutic cloning should take place as it may be the key to the world's deadliest diseases and vital to new medicines and cures. Human cloning itself I think should not take place as there is no real reason to do so and just because we can some things should be left undone. Evaluation I think that this case study has been successful in showing the various forms, techniques and ideas of cloning. I have explored the scientific nature of cloning referring to facts, figures and statistics to back up my evidence. I have also shown the ethical controversy which is strongly linked to cloning and explained this carefully. I have spoken in a continuous tone throughout the investigation while keeping precise and to the point instead of jumping around different topics and going off the point of the task in hand. Some things that could be improved on in this case study are data display. I could have included more graphs or charts. I also could have explored the nature of cloning in greater depth, looking at the chemicals and equipment used to make cloning possible. ...read more.

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