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See how different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid change the rate of reaction with a strip of magnesium and the rate at which hydrogen gas is produced when it has reacted.

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Introduction

Introduction The aim of the investigation is to see how different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid change the rate of reaction with a strip of magnesium and the rate at which hydrogen gas is produced when it has reacted. In the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon, the hydrochloric acid will dissolve the magnesium and produce hydrogen gas. All chemical reactions involve reactants which when added together may cause a chemical reaction which will produce products. In my case the reactants are hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. The chemical reaction takes place when the magnesium ribbon is dropped into the hydrochloric acid. The products that are formed during this reaction are hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride. The formula equation for this experiment is: Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen ( s ) ( aq ) ( aq ) ( g ) Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 The reaction above tells us that every magnesium atom reacts with 2 molecules of hydrochloric acid and this reaction then forms 1 atom of magnesium chloride and 1 molecule of hydrogen. This means that the reaction requires at least 1 magnesium atom and 2 molecules of hydrochloric acid for the reaction to take place. Here is the equipment which I am planning to use in my experiment: > Test Tubes - This is where the chemical reactions will take place in order to find how long magnesium takes to react with different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid. > Test Tube Rack - This is where the test tubes are held during the course of the experiment. > Clamp - It is used to hold the as syringe horizontally so the results are accurate. > Measuring Cylinder- The cylinder will be used to accurately measure the concentration of the Hydrochloric Acid. > Scissors - They will be used to cut the magnesium strips into equal pieces. ...read more.

Middle

I will measure the rate of reaction by collecting the hydrogen gas that is produced in a gas syringe that will be connected, via a delivery tube and a rubber bung to the conical flask that the reaction will take place. Preliminary work The preliminary work that I will be conducting is to find out the optimum length of magnesium ribbon and the optimum volume of hydrochloric acid. To do this I will be measuring out a volume of hydrochloric acid and a length of magnesium ribbon and they will then be reacted. If there is still some magnesium left over when it has stopped effervescing, then I will have to increase the volume of hydrochloric acid. If the reaction takes too long to finish then I will have to shorten the length of magnesium that I use, however if the reaction is too short then I will have to do the opposite and increase the length of magnesium that I use. The optimum rate that I am trying to find is a reaction that isn't too short but isn't too long, so I can get enough results to plot a good graph. I need to find the optimum volume of hydrochloric acid so that it is in excess after the reaction is over. Apart from trying to find the optimum rate of reaction I also have to find out how to keep the temperature change down. This is because as the reaction is taking place the temperature will rise because the reaction is exothermic, and this could cause my results to be inaccurate as the temperature change will heat up the acid and give the acid particles more energy so they will move faster and collide with the magnesium with greater force causing more successful collisions per second. To show that the water in the hydrochloric acid is not giving off any hydrogen gas, I will have to conduct a control experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

My results were not only reliable they were reproducible. Monometer Gas Syringe To be sure that the pressure is the same inside the syringe as outside the syringe the water levels in the monometer must be level. The last improvement to my procedure is that I should check for gas leakages where the bung is placed into the conical flask, a smear of Vaseline would help me do this. Further work There are several things that I could do for further work. The first is to find out what the rate of reaction would be for concentrations 1.25M hydrochloric acid and 1.75M hydrochloric acid as it would be interesting to see how the rate increases compared to 1M hydrochloric acid. Another experiment that I could do is change the type of acid that I use. Marx I could use sulphuric acid. This is a dibasic acid and its molecular build-up is H2 SO4 and hydrochloric acid is 2HCL, because of this I would obtain different results. I could also use phosphoric acid, which is a tribasic acid, and its molecular build-up is H 3PO4, I would also obtain different results if I used this type of acid. Nitric acid is a monobasic acid but its molecular build-up is HNO3, which is very similar to the molecular build-up of hydrochloric acid so the results that I would obtain from using this acid would be similar to the ones I already have, so I would not use this for any further experiments. The reason I could use a different type of acid for any further work is to find if the is a difference between them if their molecular build up is different. I could also use the less reactive metals of the reactivity series (zinc, aluminium, iron and lead) that way I could find the initial rate of reaction at 5 seconds for the higher concentrations of acid like 3.0M or 3.5M and I could find there relative activity. Shariq Janjua 11U Science Coursework 1 ...read more.

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