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See if temperature affects the reaction rate between marble chips and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Carbonates react with strong acids to give off carbon dioxide and water. Marble is calcium carbonate and thus behaves in the same way: CaCO3 (s) + 2HCL (aq) ? CaCL2 (aq) + H2O (l) +CO2 (g) In this experiment, I am going to see if temperature affects the reaction rate between marble chips and hydrochloric acid by timing the release of carbon dioxide in the reaction. I predict the higher the temperature, the faster the reaction rate. This is due to the kinetic theory. The more heat that is given to matter, the faster the particles move. This happens in the acid, so the faster the particles move, the faster the reaction rate due to more collisions between the marble chips and the acid. To help me plan out an adequate experiment and to find a suitable reading range, I will do a small preliminary experiment. Here is what apparatus I will use: (Draw Apparatus) I will wear goggles due to the fact that I am handling acid. ...read more.

Middle

The range is OK, but I must be careful to not go over 70�C as I spotted some hydrochloric acid vapours, anything over 70�C would be dangerous. I will make one adjustment to the preliminary by heating the acid separately, and then, when it has reached the desired temperature to pour it in through the thistle funnel into the marble chips. This allows me to start timing the experiment straight away and there should be more accuracy involved. The results from the preliminary fit in with my prediction although more readings are needed. Obtaining Evidence (draw diagram) I set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram above. I took precautions to wear goggles because I was handling acid. I followed the steps I had laid out in the plan with the changes that I made after the preliminary. I was careful not to start timing as I poured in the acid. This is because the gas released wouldn�t be produced by reaction but the displacement of air by the acid. To keep this experiment a fair one, I had to keep all variables apart from temperature the same. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is due to the kinetic theory. As temperature increases, particles speed up, this happens in the acid and so acid particles collide more with the marble particles and so the reaction happens faster. This fits in with my hypothesis too. The graph shows a smooth curve which becomes more horizontal as it reaches the higher temperatures. This is because at what ever temperature, the reaction will never be instantaneous. I conclude that as temperature increases, so does rate of reaction, but the reaction is never instantaneous. (draw graph using the data given) Evaluating Evidence The experiment went quite well. There were no anomalous results and nothing went wrong. Although I have some ideas which may gain an even more accurate reading. Firstly, the surface area of the marble chips were not perfect. It could have been made better if I had used powdered marble chips because the surface area would have been a lot closer. (although if I did use marble chips, the concentration of the acid would have to be weaker because the reaction would be too fast.) Secondly, and inaccuracy may have been caused by the fact that the temperature may have dropped during the reactio ...read more.

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