• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15

Should Biological Warfare Research Continue?

Extracts from this document...


by Sophie Murray PAGE 3 Introduction PAGE 4 What is meant by biological warfare? What substances have been used in this form of warfare? PAGE 5 How do they act on humans/living things? PAGE 6 What benefits are there to using these weapons compared to 'conventional weapons'? PAGE 7 What are the disadvantages of biological warfare? PAGE 8 What countries have stocks of weapons? PAGE 9 News paper article PAGE 10 Research costs? PAGE 11 How can the substances be made harmless? PAGE 12 When have these weapons been used? PAGE 13 Does UK defence include defence against these weapons? PAGE 14 Are there any treaties governing the use of biological weapons? PAGE 15 Conclusion and References In my case study, I aim to research whether biological warfare is necessary, and whether or not it should continue. I will show my information and results by finding different information and opinions on biological warfare. I will present my results in the form of graphs and text, which will include information about what biological warfare is and what the effects are on others when using it. My information will have different views on the subject matter. I will get my information from the internet, newspapers and what ever other resources I can find which has information on biological warfare. Biological warfare is the use of any pathogen (bacterium, virus or other disease-causing organism) ...read more.


spring-summer encephalitis, brucellosis, Machupo virus, yellow fever, typhus, melioidosis, psittacosis, rinderpest , African swine fever virus, wheat stem rust, rice blast SOUTH AFRICA Former Programme Anthrax, cholera, plague, salmonella, gas gangrene, ricin, botulinum toxin U.K Former Programme Anthrax, plague, typhoid, botulinum toxin U.S.A Former Programme Venezuelean equine encephalitis, Q fever, tularaemia, anthrax, wheat rust, rice blast, brucellosis, smallpox, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis, Argentinian hemorrhagic fever, Korean hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, glanders, melioidodis, plague, yellow fever, psittacosis, typhus, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya virus, late blight of potato, rinderpest, Newcastle disease, fowl plague, staph enterotoxin B, botulinum toxin, ricin The information above is from the website - http://www.maxwell.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/medaspec/Ch-20electrvv699.pdf UK 'Unprotected against Bio-terrorism' "Britain could never have a fully effective defence against a major bio-terrorist attack, doctors have warned. The British Medical Association said the only real way to protect against a strike with biological weapons was to stop them being produced in the first place. The BMA's Dr Vivienne Nathanson warned of the 'extremely worrying' threat posed by a single self-infected terrorist who walked through a busy city spreading a disease such as smallpox. In written evidence to the Common Science and Technology Committee, Dr Nathanson said civil contingency planning must continue. But there was no medical response to major strikes with unknown biological weapons or untreatable diseases, said Dr Nathanson, the BMA's head of science and ethics. ...read more.


As of 2001, 162 states have signed the BWC and 144 of these have agreed to it. * In 1925, the use of biological weapons in war was prohibited. * In 1972, the convention prohibited the development, production and stockpiling of biological weapons. * In 1975, the previous point was put into force. * In 2001, the USA weakened the verification provisions and undid their original agreements on the rules, arguing that the verification would be inadequate and overly intrusive. In conclusion to 'Should Biological Warfare Research Continue', I don't think that it should continue because it is illegal. Biological warfare is bad, due to the fact that it does not discriminate between "good" and "bad" people, and you can't choose who you want to be infected. On the other hand, some could say it was justifiable to keep a stockpile, due to the fact that other countries have not destroyed their stockpiles and it is therefore a mutual deterrent. There is a term called 'mutually assured destruction' - this means that a lot of countries have biological weapons due to the fact that other countries have them as well, and so if one country attacks, then the other can retaliate in the same way. In principal, it would be best not to have biological weapons, but until all countries have got rid of theirs, we ought to maintain our capability. Information taken from these pages, but change of words. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_warfare http://www.scienceclarified.com/Bi-Ca/Biological-Warfare.html http://www.maxwell.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/medaspec/Ch-20electrvv699.pdf http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6723890.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1456414.stm http://www.css.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/crti/invest/stories-exemplaires/02_0021rd-eng.asp http://www.defenselink.mil/new/newsarticle.aspx?id=47225 http://www.acronym.org.uk/bwc/index.htm ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Variation and Inheritance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Variation and Inheritance essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Evolution, what, and any evidence is there?

    4 star(s)

    structures probably share a common ancestry with organisms in with organisms in which the homologous structure is functional.? http://bioweb.cs.earlham.edu/9- 12/evolution/HTML/live.html BioWeb has its origins in 1995 at Hickman High School in Columbia, Missouri. Alex Reeder is the founder. I think this is reliable as his work appears to be peer assessed.

  2. Genetics Research

    How does DNA move through the electrophoresis box? The positive charge of the red line in the electrophoresis box attracted the negatively charged DNA. How do large pieces of DNA move compared to small pieces? Large pieces of DNA move slower then the small pieces because it takes them longer to get through the obstacles of the agarose gel.

  1. Food Policy at a Crossroads, A World of Plenty or a World of Famine ...

    Also, rice with a higher level of bio-available iron is in process of development. Thus, proponents of agro-biotechnology essentially see the benefits occurring in waves or phases with benefits initially to producers and then to consumers. As Dr. Liz Dennis points out, "the results of the first wave of research

  2. Religion and Medical Ethics.

    The Roman Catholics have this approach because none of the treatments have any sex act. They say that God's plan for reproduction demands sex to be a portion of it. Also IVF compromise throwing away the unwanted eggs or using them for investigation which is no different from abortion.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work