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Smoking and the effect on the cardiovascular system Whenever a person smokes a cigarette, the chemicals in the smoke, particularly nicotine and carbon monoxide

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Introduction

Smoking and the effect on the cardiovascular system Whenever a person smokes a cigarette, the chemicals in the smoke, particularly nicotine and carbon monoxide, damage the cardiovascular system. Nicotine causes both immediate and longer term increases in blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output and coronary blood flow. Carbon monoxide binds to the hemoglobin, which is what normally carries oxygen from the lungs via the bloodstream, and therefore reduces the amount of oxygen reaching body tissues. Smoking makes blood vessels and blood cells sticky, allowing cholesterol and other dangerous fatty material to build up inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. This in turn can lead to raised blood pressure and clot formation. There are a number of cardiovascular diseases that are associated with smoking. They include heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. ...read more.

Middle

Stroke Strokes occur because of damage to the brain due to one of two things - either the blood supply to the brain is blocked or blood has escaped into the brain. These can happen because of atherosclerosis or high blood pressure. Smoking may cause an artery in the brain to become blocked by a blood clot or other debris carried in the bloodstream. This cuts off the blood supply to the surrounding brain cells and causes them to die. This can affect thinking, movement, speech and/or the senses. About a third of those who have a stroke die within 12 months. Another third become permanently disabled. Peripheral Vascular Disease This type of cardiovascular disease occurs mainly in older people. ...read more.

Conclusion

In total, 3522 in the UK people suffered from oral cancer in 1993. ("Oral cancer" includes cancers of the lip, tongue, mouth and throat.) Heavy smokers have laryngeal cancer mortality risks 20 to 30 times greater than non-smokers. People who drink alcohol and smoke have a much higher risk of oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers than those only using tobacco or alcohol. A US study revealed that among consumers of both products the risk of these cancers was increased more than 35-fold among those who smoked forty or more cigarettes a day and took more than four alcoholic drinks a day. It has been estimated that tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking account for about three quarters of all oral and pharyngeal cancers. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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