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SNAB BIOLOGY

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Introduction

AS SNAB BIOLOGY RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE Centre Number: 14619 Student Name: Leslie Stevens Report Title: A visit to Kew gardens report TARGET AUDIENCE: A/S level student that isn't doing biology as an A/S subject, but takes a keen interest in the biological principles, and is interested in plants. MAIN BIOLOGY: Conservation of endangered plants MINOR BIOLOGY: Plants used for drugs VISIT TO: Kew gardens WORD COUNT: 1739 word counts not including front page. Introduction: Kew gardens are one of the worlds leading scientific botanical gardens as a research centre has two functions. One of its roles is to catalogue the biodiversity of endangered plants in the rainforest e.g. Madagascar, the 300,000 species of plants it keeps and conserves are kept in suitable conditions to nurture and help regulate endangered populations. Its other key role is micro propagation this is growing plants and seeds from pieces of tissue in sterile conditions in a laboratory, and performed in a controlled environment, this is one of the methods used by Kew gardens to prevent endangered species becoming extinct. Ethics: Conservation parks are all very useful as they help in the way of sustaining endangered species, plants are one of them without conservation parks deforestation will, destroy the vast biodiversity of rainforest and increase the number of plants that become extinct. So conservation parks take these plants out of the dangerous environment and grow and sustain them in suitable artificial environments. ...read more.

Middle

This shows the testing of the tissue growth in the micro propagation method. DNA fingerprinting is using sequences to identify every individual person or plant; this is according to the different base pairs and their sequencing. Isolating the DNA in from the rest of the cellular material in the nucleus is the first, and cutting the DNA into several pieces of different sizes using restriction enzyme. Using gel electrophoresis and leaving the DNA strands singular passing electricity through the gel which will separate the DNA strands according to size. This is then made radioactive and then the radioactive can be attached to the base pair of another DNA, according to sequence. With this information received from the DNA, the origin of the plant for example could be found out, what family it belongs to, and finally the identification for each and every individual plant, quite like DNA bar coding. Kew also uses methods of extracting DNA from plants by freezing the tissues powdering it and by adding solutions they can use a DNA pellet to make the DNA strands visible. Corn flowers are dieing out due to the chemicals used by farmers in the bid to increase their yield this has damaged the cornflower and led them nearly to extinction. The corn flower grew as a weed in fields but is now endangered due to the over use of herbicides more machinery instead of horses many cereals are sown in autumn rather than spring and more sterile environment have dramatically reduced the numbers, It has declined from 264 sites to only 3 sites left in Britain. ...read more.

Conclusion

Over long term uses the brain adapts to the presence of the drug, once withdrawn the body suffers from vomiting, diarrhoea over several days, and physical cravings. Opium was used as an analgesic until morphine was discovered, which was carried out for numbing severe pains. Morphine is used in operations, because it blocks neuron, impulses it means that operations can be carried out without any pains at all, can be used in heart surgery, lung transplants, or removing objects inside the body without the patient feeling any pain. Economics: Mirwais Yasini, the head of Afghanistan's Counter Narcotics Directorate, who estimates that the Taliban and its allies derived more than US$150m from drugs in 2003. In recent Afghanistan history, opium poppy cultivation has been ranging from, 54,000 to 80,000 hectares. As for the 91,000 and the 8,000 hectares harvested respectively in 1999 and 2001, yielding 4,581 and 185 tonnes of opium, this practically means that opium is the main source of income for Afghanistan. Future: The cultivation of opium poppies are decreasing significantly this is mainly because of their high demand, in surgical uses and for smoking them. I believe these plants might need to be conserved very soon if we still want their narcotic, and analgesic effects hopefully in the future there would be more efficient ways of conserving them and ways of producing large numbers of these poppies. These poppies may be used effectively for the same purposes in the future however new usage might be discovered. The decreasing number of poppies from 1990 to 2005. ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

***
This is good overall account of Kew Garden's role in the conservation of endangered plants. Some good images support the account.
Some of the information is repeated several times and might be a little more logically organized and clearly explained. Some examples of plants used in the different conservation methods would make it more interesting to read.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 01/03/2013

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