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Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid - The Affect of Temperature

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid - The Affect of Temperature Aim I am carrying out an experiment to find out the rates of reactions (how fast a reaction occurs) of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. There are a number of factors which affect the rates of reactions. I will be varying, in this particular coursework, the temperature to find out how it affects the rate of a reaction. Apparatus 1. Sodium thiosulphate - 0.1N 2. Hydrochloric acid - 0.1N 3. Thermometer 4. Paper with a cross on it 5. Beakers - 2 6. Tripod 7. Stopwatch Procedure Firstly I put 50ml of water and 20ml of hydrochloric acid in a beaker and in the other beaker I put in 20ml of sodium thiosulphate. After this I set up the Bunsen burner and the tripod. I then measured the time taken for the reaction to take place at room temperature (24? C). I did this by mixing the dilute hydrochloric acid with the sodium thiosulphate and then placing the beaker on the paper with the cross. I waited until the cross was obscured and the sulphur precipitate began to form. I did this for temperatures ranging from 30-50? C. I obtained the temperatures required by heating the sodium thiosulphate on the Bunsen burner and the tripod; I left the liquid on the Bunsen burner and kept measuring the temperature of the liquid with the thermometer. ...read more.

Middle

This proves that raising the temperature definitely quickens the rate of a reaction. The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution shown below illustrates the amount of energy a number of particles possess. The graph only applies to gases, but conclusions which I may draw from it are true also for reactions which involve liquids. The area under the curve represents the number of particles present. In the diagram below the activation energy is labelled. The graph labelled T is at the original temperature. The graph labelled T + t is at a higher temperature. As is evident from these graphs, raising the temperature almost doubles the amount of particles possessing activation energy or more. This is shown by the area to the right of the activation energy line. The area under the graphs remains constant as the number of particles present is the same throughout. Conclusively it can be said that increasing the temperature most definitely increases the rate of a reaction as there is a large increase in the number of high energy collisions. It is due to these collisions, which possess at least the minimum energy required for a reaction (activation energy), that I have a reaction. Increasing the temperature for approximately 10? C almost doubles the time taken for a reaction to happen. The Results Obtained After I had carried out the experiment these were the results I obtained. ...read more.

Conclusion

I would have also used a tile with a cross on it instead of using just a paper. This is due to the fact that using a paper I had to be extra careful not to spill anything on it because if I did so the cross would darken, hence making the results unreliable. As well as this I would have done the experiment on a less humid day as the room temperatures were pretty high. Generally my evidence is pretty good. However there is an error with fourth result where I heated the sodium thiosulphate until it reached 40? C. This result may have been caused due to carelessness on my part. It could have been that I were too slow in getting the liquid away from the Bunsen burner, during the process some of the heat may have escaped through the beaker. On the whole I feel that my evidence is sufficiently reliable. It closely supports my hypothesis and is backed up with scientific theory. However to ensure my results are more reliable I could have done the experiment more than three times to obtain more accurate results. Conclusively I think I did pretty well especially considering the time and resources available to me. My results were backed by my hypothesis and seem to be reasonably reliable. ...read more.

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