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Soil water content in relation to species diversity in a Pingoe.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Soil Water Content in Relation to

Species Diversity in a Pingoe

Introduction

Fouldon common is situated in the east of England near Norfolk. The area has been classified a Site of Special Scientific Interest as it is a rare habitat known as Ancient Chalk grassland. It is because of the large amounts of chalk in the ground that the soil is alkaline and has a PH of around 8.0. There are very few areas of natural grassland present to day as most are used for agricultural purposes or have developed in to woodland. There are two main reasons why this is not the case at Fouldon common, the first is the presence of pingos and the second is grazing. In past years the people who lived in Fouldon had gazing rights this means that they were able to use the land for grazing there own animals such as sheep. Due to agricultural advances there has been a decline in this from the beginning of the twentieth centaury. The other main source of grazing at Fouldon common was from Rabbits. Unfortunately due to the Myxomatosis epidemic in the 1950’s the population of rabbits at Fouldon common like many other places across the British Isle has declined. This then resulted in a serious drop in the amount of grazing at Fouldon causing large amounts of the grassland to develop into scrubland. Now under new ownership precautions to insure the preservation of the common have been put in place, this has included the clearance of hawthorn bushes as well as some young trees, a small group of grazing animals in the form of cattle have also been introduced. This coupled with the recent recovery of the rabbit population has lead to the restoration of Fouldon common over that few years.

...read more.

Middle

0

0

1

0

0.3

Cinq fail

1

3

4

4

1

1

2.3

White clover

4

3

5

3

4

2

3.5

Ladies bedstraw

2

3

6

2

1

4

3

Ribwort Plantaen

7

9

7

8

7

9

7.8

Yarrow

2

0

0

3

0

1

1

Knapweed

0

1

0

1

2

0

0.7

Dandelion

1

2

0

0

2

0

0.7

Thistle

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salad Bernet

1

1

0

0

2

0

0.7

Buttercup

0

0

0

0

0

1

0.2

Cocks foot

2

5

6

3

8

3

4.5

Sedge

1

2

3

3

1

1

1.8

Fescue

7

6

9

8

6

6

7

Agrostis

8

9

9

9

7

6

8

Hard rush

0

0

0

1

0

3

0.7

Total

40

48

54

49

45

40

46

Species Diversity

9.6

9.9

9.4

10.1

10.2

9.2

9.8

Zone 6 (10 M)

Species

Frequency in quadrat 1

Frequency in quadrat 2

Frequency in quadrat 3

Frequency in quadrat 4

Frequency in quadrat 5

Frequency in quadrat 6

average

Ragwort

2

2

2

4

0

1

1.8

Cowslip

1

0

1

1

0

2

0.8

Cinq fail

6

9

7

7

6

5

6.7

White clover

7

9

6

7

8

6

7.2

Ladies bedstraw

2

4

5

5

3

4

3.8

Ribwort Plantaen

8

6

6

7

9

7

7.2

Yarrow

1

4

5

6

3

0

3.2

Knapweed

0

2

0

2

1

0

0.5

Dandelion

0

0

0

1

0

0

0.2

Thistle

0

1

0

0

0

0

0.2

Salad Bernet

0

0

2

0

0

0

0.3

Buttercup

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Cocks foot

1

4

5

6

7

4

5

Sedge

1

0

7

2

4

5

3.2

Fescue

7

9

7

9

8

8

8

Agrostis

5

4

5

5

4

3

4.3

Hard rush

1

1

3

0

1

0

0.8

Total

42

55

61

62

54

45

53.2

Species Diversity

9.3

10

13.3

11.8

9.8

9.9

10.7

Zone 7 (12 M)

Species

Frequency in quadrat 1

Frequency in quadrat 2

Frequency in quadrat 3

Frequency in quadrat 4

Frequency in quadrat 5

Frequency in quadrat 6

average

Ragwort

1

3

2

0

0

1

1.2

Cowslip

0

1

0

0

2

0

0.5

Cinq fail

4

7

6

6

5

7

5.8

White clover

8

9

8

7

7

7

7.3

Ladies bedstraw

0

0

0

0

0

1

0.2

Ribwort Plantaen

8

9

7

7

8

8

7.8

Yarrow

0

1

0

0

0

0

0.2

Knapweed

0

0

0

0

1

0

0.2

Dandelion

1

0

1

0

0

2

0.7

Thistle

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salad Bernet

1

0

2

0

2

0

0.8

Buttercup

0

0

0

2

0

0

0.3

Cocks foot

7

7

6

4

8

8

6.7

Sedge

3

4

4

5

3

4

3.8

Fescue

6

6

7

5

5

6

5.8

Agrostis

8

9

7

7

7

8

7.7

Hard rush

0

2

0

0

1

1

0.7

Total

47

58

50

43

49

53

50

Species Diversity

8.4

9.4

9.5

8.6

9.6

9.3

9.1

Zone 8 (14 M)

Species

Frequency in quadrat 1

Frequency in quadrat 2

Frequency in quadrat 3

Frequency in quadrat 4

Frequency in quadrat 5

Frequency in quadrat 6

average

Ragwort

2

6

7

6

3

2

4.3

Cowslip

0

0

0

0

1

2

0.5

Cinq fail

4

9

9

4

5

6

6.2

White clover

9

5

6

0

4

8

5.3

Ladies bedstraw

4

0

5

0

2

5

2.7

Ribwort Plantaen

9

9

6

8

8

8

8

Yarrow

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Knapweed

0

0

0

1

0

2

0.5

Dandelion

0

0

1

0

0

0

0.2

Thistle

0

2

0

0

2

1

0.8

Salad Bernet

3

0

0

2

3

4

2

Buttercup

2

3

0

2

3

4

2.3

Cocks foot

4

9

9

4

5

6

6.2

Sedge

2

6

6

5

5

0

4

Fescue

5

4

6

7

6

4

5.3

Agrostis

7

9

7

8

6

8

7.5

Hard rush

0

0

3

1

0

2

1

Total

51

62

65

48

53

62

56.8

Species Diversity

14

9.7

11.1

9.7

13.1

13

11.8

Amount of water present in the soil at each zone and soil PH.

Zone

Weight before (g)

Weight after (g)

Difference (g)

Percentage of water

PH

1

8.5

6.1

2.4

29%

8

2

9

7.1

1.9

22%

8

3

9.5

6.8

2.7

29%

8

4

12.1

6.9

5.2

43%

8

5

11.6

6

4.6

49%

8

6

35.5

21

14.5

41%

8

7

13.9

6.7

7.2

52%

8

8

10.8

3.8

7

65%

8

Explanation of results

Form these results it can be seen that from zone 1 to 8 over all the species diversity has increased from 7.8 to 11.8. The amount of water in the soil has also increased from zone 1 to zone 8 from 29% to 65%. This relates to the species diversity as the more water available for photosynthesis the more plants are able to survive. The types of grass found in the different zones in the pingoe also have changed. Towards the bottom of the pingoe grasses such as sedge and hard rush are more abundant, these grasses are taller and more resilient.

...read more.

Conclusion

pan class="c3 c8 c19"> 2

Frequency in quadrat 3

Frequency in quadrat 4

Frequency in quadrat 5

Frequency in quadrat 6

Ragwort

0

2

0

0

1

1

Cowslip

1

3

3

1

0

2

Cinq fail

0

1

1

1

0

1

White clover

4

7

7

7

8

5

Ladies bedstraw

0

4

4

6

5

2

Ribwort Plantaen

9

5

8

7

7

6

Yarrow

0

0

0

0

0

0

Knapweed

5

0

2

2

0

1

Dandelion

2

3

0

1

0

2

Thistle

1

0

0

0

2

0

Salad Bernet

0

0

0

0

0

0

Buttercup

2

2

0

0

1

0

Cocks foot

4

8

4

5

5

7

Sedge

0

0

0

0

1

2

Fescue

8

9

9

9

9

8

Agrostis

8

9

9

8

8

8

Hard rush

0

0

0

0

0

0

Zone 3 (4 M)

Species

Frequency in quadrat 1

Frequency in quadrat 2

Frequency in quadrat 3

Frequency in quadrat 4

Frequency in quadrat 5

Frequency in quadrat 6

Ragwort

4

4

4

5

7

3

Cowslip

1

2

0

4

1

2

Cinq fail

6

7

7

5

6

5

White clover

7

8

8

6

5

8

Ladies bedstraw

1

1

0

2

0

1

Ribwort Plantaen

9

9

7

7

8

7

Yarrow

1

4

2

1

1

2

Knapweed

2

2

2

3

1

2

Dandelion

1

0

1

0

0

0

Thistle

1

0

0

2

0

0

Salad Bernet

0

1

0

0

0

0

Buttercup

0

1

0

0

0

1

Cocks foot

6

6

4

3

7

7

Sedge

0

0

2

3

0

1

Fescue

9

9

7

8

6

3

Agrostis

8

9

9

7

7

7

Hard rush

0

0

1

0

0

0

Zone 4 (6 M)

Species

Frequency in quadrat 1

Frequency in quadrat 2

Frequency in quadrat 3

Frequency in quadrat 4

Frequency in quadrat 5

Frequency in quadrat 6

Ragwort

3

4

4

3

5

4

Cowslip

2

2

2

0

2

1

Cinq fail

1

3

4

0

5

1

White clover

9

9

8

7

8

8

Ladies bedstraw

3

4

5

3

3

2

Ribwort Plantaen

8

9

7

7

7

8

Yarrow

6

5

5

3

3

1

Knapweed

0

1

0

0

0

1

Dandelion

0

0

0

1

0

0

Thistle

0

0

0

1

0

0

Salad Bernet

0

0

1

0

0

1

Buttercup

0

2

0

0

1

0

Cocks foot

3

5

5

3

2

1

Sedge

1

1

2

3

0

0

Fescue

5

6

7

8

6

6

Agrostis

9

9

9

8

7

6

Hard rush

0

0

1

2

0

0

Zone 5 (8 M)

Species

Frequency in quadrat 1

Frequency in quadrat 2

Frequency in quadrat 3

Frequency in quadrat 4

Frequency in quadrat 5

Frequency in quadrat 6

Ragwort

3

4

5

4

3

3

Cowslip

1

0

0

0

1

0

Cinq fail

1

3

4

4

1

1

White clover

4

3

5

3

4

2

Ladies bedstraw

2

3

6

2

1

4

Ribwort Plantaen

7

9

7

8

7

9

Yarrow

2

0

0

3

0

1

Knapweed

0

1

0

1

2

0

Dandelion

1

2

0

0

2

0

Thistle

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salad Bernet

1

1

0

0

2

0

Buttercup

0

0

0

0

0

1

Cocks foot

2

5

6

3

8

3

Sedge

1

2

3

3

1

1

Fescue

7

6

9

8

6

6

Agrostis

8

9

9

9

7

6

Hard rush

0

0

0

1

0

3

Zone 6 (10 M)

Species

Frequency in quadrat 1

Frequency in quadrat 2

Frequency in quadrat 3

Frequency in quadrat 4

Frequency in quadrat 5

Frequency in quadrat 6

Ragwort

2

2

2

4

0

1

Cowslip

1

0

1

1

0

2

Cinq fail

6

9

7

7

6

5

White clover

7

9

6

7

8

6

Ladies bedstraw

2

4

5

5

3

4

Ribwort Plantaen

8

6

6

7

9

7

Yarrow

1

4

5

6

3

0

Knapweed

0

2

0

2

1

0

Dandelion

0

0

0

1

0

0

Thistle

0

1

0

0

0

0

Salad Bernet

0

0

2

0

0

0

Buttercup

0

0

0

0

0

0

Cocks foot

1

4

5

6

7

4

Sedge

1

0

7

2

4

5

Fescue

7

9

7

9

8

8

Agrostis

5

4

5

5

4

3

Hard rush

1

1

3

0

1

0

Zone 7 (12 M)

Species

Frequency in quadrat 1

Frequency in quadrat 2

Frequency in quadrat 3

Frequency in quadrat 4

Frequency in quadrat 5

Frequency in quadrat 6

Ragwort

1

3

2

0

0

1

Cowslip

0

1

0

0

2

0

Cinq fail

4

7

6

6

5

7

White clover

8

9

8

7

7

7

Ladies bedstraw

0

0

0

0

0

1

Ribwort Plantaen

8

9

7

7

8

8

Yarrow

0

1

0

0

0

0

Knapweed

0

0

0

0

1

0

Dandelion

1

0

1

0

0

2

Thistle

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salad Bernet

1

0

2

0

2

0

Buttercup

0

0

0

2

0

0

Cocks foot

7

7

6

4

8

8

Sedge

3

4

4

5

3

4

Fescue

6

6

7

5 ...read more.

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