• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Some fuels are mixed with oxidising agents to produce explosives. An explosive such as gunpowder is designed to carry their own oxygen supply taking gunpowder as the example the potassium nitrate in the gunpowder acts as an oxidiser

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Explosives Open Book Rebecca Moore Oxidation is the addition of oxygen, removal of hydrogen or the removal of electrons from an element or compound. In the environment organic matter is oxidised to a more stable substance. Oxidation is the opposite of reduction. Example: C{S} + O2{g} CO2{g} This is an example of an oxidation reaction, carbon has gained oxygen and its oxidation state has increased from 0 to +4. Some fuels are mixed with oxidising agents to produce explosives. An explosive such as gunpowder is designed to carry their own oxygen supply taking gunpowder as the example the potassium nitrate in the gunpowder acts as an oxidiser and provides the oxygen needed for the reaction. These are needed because in the air the oxygen supply is limited. Therefore without the oxidiser the reaction would take place steadily and the gases would be given off over a long time period and therefore no explosion would occur. In detonating mixtures, the oxygen is bound rather loosely to the reducing agent, so loosely in fact, that it takes very little external energy to break them apart. ...read more.

Middle

High explosives are also called detonating, and low explosives are referred to as burning mixtures. The difference between detonation and burning is that a burning mixture simply burns at a very fast rate, usually not exceeding the speed of sound, needing other methods to produce an explosion. Detonation, on the other hand, occurs almost simultaneously through the whole mass of the mixture. For something to be explosive it must take place very quickly, it must be an exothermic reaction {heat must be given out} and as many of the products must be gases. In an explosion the gases are hot and are produced quickly in an enclosed small space, like a bullet or shell. This leads to a big rise in pressure which ultimately causes the explosion. {2,4, 3} {Picture: high explosives are used for mining; the picture shows an explosion taking place in a rock face}{5} Give an account of the development of chemical compounds for use in explosives. Describe the advantages of each new chemical explosive over its predecessors and describe how the explosives were adapted to make them safer and more effective. ...read more.

Conclusion

It also does not react with metal therefore metal bomb containers can be used. {1,2,3} Discuss how attitudes to health and safety in chemical research and industrial chemistry have changed over time. Use examples from the history if the development and manufacture of explosives and medicines. In the past is seems that all chemists discovered different chemicals but sheer chance. This however proved a very dangerous way of making advances in chemical research. For example: when Alfred Nobel's research into the properties of nitroglycerine killed his youngest brother and another chemist in an explosion. Similarly when a chemist called Sobero tasted the substance he was researching to see if it was dangerous, this could have killed him. As you can see from the examples health and safety was never really considered. Now attitudes are completely reversed. Health and safety legislation is a massive part of research and development. Governments instate a lot of legislation for the handling and storage of explosives, for example the 'Occupational Health and Safety Amendment (Dangerous Goods) Act 2003' and. Everything is thought about from the handling to the transport of chemicals.{3} h {Explosive hazard sign. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Explain, giving examples from the articles, what is meant by oxidation and show how ...

    Towards the end of the nineteenth century, black powder had been replaced as a propellant for military purposes by a smokeless powder based on cellulose nitrate. This substance catches fire very quickly and burns without lighting a fuse; produces very little smoke and creates an impulsive impact.

  2. Oxidation is where electrons are lost in chemical reactions with oxidising agents, thereby increasing ...

    Nitroglycerine mixed with Collodion (a form of nitrated cellulose). It had the same safety benefits as dynamite and was a more powerful explosive. f) Cordite is a mixture of cellulose trinitrate and glycerol trinitrate and other substances. It was, and still is, used as a smokeless propellant for shells.

  1. Identifying An Unknown Organic Compound

    Since no reaction occurs between iron (III) chloride and compound E occurs the conclusion that compound E is not a phenol is reached. Tollen's reagent is used to test for an aldehyde. Since compound E tested negative for a carbonyl compound it should also test negative for this reaction.

  2. Find out how the rate of hydrolysis of an organic halogen compound depends on ...

    The cross is no longer visible when a certain amount of sulphur has formed. The reaction time to reach this point can be measured using different starting concentrations of sodium thiosulphate solution. The volume of each solution and the concentration of the hydrochloric acid must be kept constant in each experiment.

  1. Give an account of the properties and uses of phenol

    Li2O2 does not exist while K2O2 and KO2 exist. In Lithium compounds with large anions such as LiNO3 and Li2CO3 are thermally unstable due to the increased covalent character of these compounds. 2LiNO3 --> 2LiNO2 + O2 and Li2CO3 --> Li2O + CO2 For similar reason, Na2CO3 is not decomposed

  2. Gunpowder contains compounds that act as oxidisers (Potassium Nitrate, sulphur), so that oxygen is ...

    Consequently, generals could not issue appropriate orders. An explosive that produced little or no smoke was eagerly awaited. In 1846, Dr Christian Schonbein accidentally discovered nitrocellulose, a chemical that changed the world of warfare due to the lack of smoke from the gun powder.

  1. ICT modelling spreadsheet - This coursework was designed to investigate the uses of electricity ...

    The to scale this up to a final bill, we would then multiply the final outcome by 13, to get the quarterly bill. To calculate the bill, several things must be done. Firstly, as mentioned in the introduction, we need to go around the house and list how many kilowatts the appliance uses every hour.

  2. The development of poly(ethene) and Poly(propene).

    Isotactic poly(propene) is the most crystalline of the three as its methyl groups are on the same side of the carbon chain. The syndiotactic poly(propene) has its methyl groups alternating regularly from side to side. This means the carbon chains in these two can get close to each other, which gives the polymer a higher strength and rigidity.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work