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Some fuels are mixed with oxidising agents to produce explosives. An explosive such as gunpowder is designed to carry their own oxygen supply taking gunpowder as the example the potassium nitrate in the gunpowder acts as an oxidiser

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Introduction

Explosives Open Book Rebecca Moore Oxidation is the addition of oxygen, removal of hydrogen or the removal of electrons from an element or compound. In the environment organic matter is oxidised to a more stable substance. Oxidation is the opposite of reduction. Example: C{S} + O2{g} CO2{g} This is an example of an oxidation reaction, carbon has gained oxygen and its oxidation state has increased from 0 to +4. Some fuels are mixed with oxidising agents to produce explosives. An explosive such as gunpowder is designed to carry their own oxygen supply taking gunpowder as the example the potassium nitrate in the gunpowder acts as an oxidiser and provides the oxygen needed for the reaction. These are needed because in the air the oxygen supply is limited. Therefore without the oxidiser the reaction would take place steadily and the gases would be given off over a long time period and therefore no explosion would occur. In detonating mixtures, the oxygen is bound rather loosely to the reducing agent, so loosely in fact, that it takes very little external energy to break them apart. ...read more.

Middle

High explosives are also called detonating, and low explosives are referred to as burning mixtures. The difference between detonation and burning is that a burning mixture simply burns at a very fast rate, usually not exceeding the speed of sound, needing other methods to produce an explosion. Detonation, on the other hand, occurs almost simultaneously through the whole mass of the mixture. For something to be explosive it must take place very quickly, it must be an exothermic reaction {heat must be given out} and as many of the products must be gases. In an explosion the gases are hot and are produced quickly in an enclosed small space, like a bullet or shell. This leads to a big rise in pressure which ultimately causes the explosion. {2,4, 3} {Picture: high explosives are used for mining; the picture shows an explosion taking place in a rock face}{5} Give an account of the development of chemical compounds for use in explosives. Describe the advantages of each new chemical explosive over its predecessors and describe how the explosives were adapted to make them safer and more effective. ...read more.

Conclusion

It also does not react with metal therefore metal bomb containers can be used. {1,2,3} Discuss how attitudes to health and safety in chemical research and industrial chemistry have changed over time. Use examples from the history if the development and manufacture of explosives and medicines. In the past is seems that all chemists discovered different chemicals but sheer chance. This however proved a very dangerous way of making advances in chemical research. For example: when Alfred Nobel's research into the properties of nitroglycerine killed his youngest brother and another chemist in an explosion. Similarly when a chemist called Sobero tasted the substance he was researching to see if it was dangerous, this could have killed him. As you can see from the examples health and safety was never really considered. Now attitudes are completely reversed. Health and safety legislation is a massive part of research and development. Governments instate a lot of legislation for the handling and storage of explosives, for example the 'Occupational Health and Safety Amendment (Dangerous Goods) Act 2003' and. Everything is thought about from the handling to the transport of chemicals.{3} h {Explosive hazard sign. ...read more.

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