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# Steps for Solving Titration Problems

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Introduction

Term Explanation Volumetric analysis A quantitative technique used to analyse solutions using volumes of solutions. Burette Calibrated apparatus with a delivery tap at the base, used to deliver up to 50 mL of solution Pipette The analytical pipette is designed for accurate transfer of fixed volumes of solution. Common sizes include 5.0 mL, 10.0 mL, 20 mL, and 50 mL. A pipette bulb is used to draw up solution safely into the pipette. titrate To add the solution from the burette into the receiving flask while watching for a colour change. titre The volume of solution added from the burette to exactly reach the end-point. aliquot The accurate volume of solution transferred by pipette to the receiving flask. end point The point at which a colour change occurs. The solution added from the burette is usually just in excess. equivalence point The point at which the ratio of moles of reactants is equal to the ratio in the reaction equation; neither reactant is in excess. ...read more.

Middle

* Rinse the beaker with some more distilled water and transfer this to the volumetric flask. Repeat if necessary. Ensure that all the weighed solid is transferred to the volumetric flask. * Fill the volumetric flask with distilled water until the bottom of the meniscus just sits on the calibration mark. Stopper and gently mix the solution. * Calculate the concentration of the solution and record the concentration on a label on the flask. (Remember you can only be as accurate as the accuracy of you mass balance.) 2. The properties of a primary standard. * It is easily obtainable pure. * It does not react with oxygen or carbon dioxide in the air. * Its reaction with the substance to be analysed is complete and the equation for the reaction is known. * It is soluble under the conditions in which it is to be used.Other useful features: * High molar mass so that weighing errors are minimised. * Cheap and readily available.Examples of primary standards - * anhydrous A.R. sodium oxalate Na2C2O4, * anhydrous A.R. sodium carbonate Na2CO3, 3. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Rinse the pipette twice with about 10% of its volume of the solution to be transferred. * Using a safety filler, fill the pipette above its calibrations mark. * Use a tissue to remove drops on the outside of the pipette near the tip. * Hold the pipette vertically with the tip against a beaker. With the calibration mark at eye level, allow the solution to drain slowly until the bottom of the meniscus is level with the calibration. If the bottom of the meniscus falls below the calibration, start again to refill using the safety filler. * Allow the contents to drain into the conical flask. Hold the pipette tip against the flask wall to avoid splashing. * After the pipette appears to have drained, allow five seconds further drainage. Do not force the contents out of the pipette. * Wash down the inside walls of the flask with distilled water from a wash bottle. 5. Rinsing of apparatus used in titrations * Receiving apparatus - volumetric flasks, conical titration flasks (Rinse with water) * Transfer apparatus- burettes, pipettes.(Rinse with the solutions they will be transferring.) ...read more.

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